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The Frosmo glossary is a dictionary of the commonly used terms in the Frosmo Platform and in web UI development more broadly.

TermAbbreviationDefinitionAlternative terms

A




A/B testing

Most common way to test optimized or personalized content. In A/B testing, you split your visitors into two or more groups (A, B, and so on) and show different content variations to those groups. When the variations have been seen by enough visitors you can analyze their performance to see which content variation performed the best, for example, resulted in the highest conversion rate or average order value.

In the Frosmo Control Panel, you can create an A/B test modification with two or more variations and define the distribution between the variations.

See also: Variation distribution

Split testing
Above the fold
See Fold.
Advanced tracking

Advanced tracking extends the basic tracking functionality of the Frosmo Platform with custom events, which allow you to track modifications beyond clicks, displays, and true displays. A custom event can be about anything that you can do with or change in a modification.

See also: Custom event


Affinity

Affinity measures a visitor's level of engagement with the items, such as retail products or online games, on a website. Affinity indicates what an individual visitor is interested in. The more a visitor interacts with specific items, and the more interest they therefore show in those items and the attributes they represent, the greater their affinity for the items and for similar items. You can use affinity to personalize the content that visitors interact with and the user journeys they experience based on their individual interests and preferences.

Affinity is measured along item attributes. A given affinity is always for a single attribute value, such as a specific category like "Mobile Phones" or "Roulette Games", rather than for a specific item. A visitor can have multiple affinities per item attribute. Each affinity has its own affinity score, which indicates the visitor's current level of affinity for that attribute value.

The Frosmo Platform automatically tracks affinities for each individual visitor in near real time. The totality of affinities tracked for a visitor make up the visitor's affinity profile.

See also: Affinity data, Affinity group, Affinity profile, Affinity score, item, item attribute

Visitor affinity
Affinity data

Any affinity-related data tracked or generated for a visitor and stored in the Frosmo back end. The data consists of the visitor's affinity profile and affinity group data.

See also: Affinity, Affinity group, Affinity group data, Affinity profile

Visitor affinity data
Affinity group

Group of visitors who share the same affinity.

The Frosmo Platform automatically creates and manages affinity groups for a site. You cannot create, edit, or remove affinity groups, but you can assign modifications to them and view statistics about them.

See also: Affinity, Affinity group data

Visitor affinity group
Affinity group data

Any affinity-group-related data tracked or generated for a visitor on a site and stored in the Frosmo back end. The data consists of a list of the affinity groups to which the visitor currently belongs.

The Frosmo Platform automatically keeps a record of the affinity groups to which an individual visitor belongs.

See also: Affinity, Affinity group

Visitor affinity group data
Affinity profile

Full record of a visitor's current affinities on a site. The profile lists all affinities (attribute name and value) and corresponding affinity scores tracked for the visitor in the past 60 days.

The Frosmo Platform automatically creates and maintains a dedicated affinity profile for each individual visitor.

See also: Affinity, Affinity data, Affinity score

Visitor affinity profile
Affinity score

An affinity score is a numerical measure of how interested a visitor is in the items represented by an affinity. Each affinity has a single affinity score. The score is always a positive integer, such as 17 or 328. The higher the score, the greater the interest.

A visitor's affinity scores are recorded in their affinity profile.

See also: Affinity, Affinity profile

Visitor affinity score
Annotation

Annotations are dated notes associated with a site and shown in timeline-based statistics views. You can add an annotation to a specific calendar date to easily detect whether there has been a change in your site statistics during or after that date.

For example, you can create an annotation for a day you launch a new feature on your site. Later, you can easily view how the launch has affected the traffic, visitor retention, conversions for your site, or the performance of a specific modification.


Average conversions per unique userACPUU

Average number of conversions completed during a specified period of time by all unique visitors on your site.

See also: Unique visitor


Average conversions per paying userACPPUAverage number of conversions completed during a specified period of time by visitors that complete a conversion on your site.
Average order valueAOV

Average order value is, as the name suggests, the total revenue from orders divided by the number of orders. It is an important metric for online businesses to understand their customers' buying habits in order to optimize them.

At Frosmo, average order value is commonly used for measuring the impact of product recommendations, such as the upsell or cross-sell they generate.


Average revenue per paying userARPPUAverage revenue brought by converted visitors during a specified period of time.
Average revenue per unique userARPUU

Average revenue brought by all unique visitors on your site during a specified period of time.

See also: Unique visitor


B




Back end

Back-end (or server-side) systems consist of databases, data processing components, and other server infrastructures that handle operations not directly visible to website visitors. An important function of the back-end system is to launch programs and operations in response to front-end system requests.

See also: Front end

Server-side system
Below the fold
See Fold.

C




Call to actionCTAIn web design and online marketing, a call to action is a visual element, such as a banner, button, or link, prompting the visitor to take some action (normally by clicking the element). The purpose of inviting a response from the visitor is to create leads and attract the visitor to enter the conversion funnel.
Case

Use case of a modification, which you select when you create the modification. The case primarily determines the number of variations the modification can have and, if the modification has multiple variations, how the variation distribution is defined.

You can select from the following cases:

  • A/B test: Create a modification for comparing two or more variations against each other to determine which one performs the best. You define the variation distribution manually.
  • Multi-armed bandit: Create a multi-variation modification that automatically and continuously adjusts the variation distribution based on how well the individual variations perform over time. You define how to measure the performance and select the multi-armed bandit algorithm used by the modification.
  • Personalization: Create a single piece of content that you customize for a specific target audience. The modification has one variation, which is pre-created with the modification. You can modify the variation, but you cannot remove it.

See also: A/B test, ModificationMulti-armed bandit, Personalization, Variation distribution


Click

In the Frosmo context, a modification gets a click if the visitor has clicked a part of the modification for which clicks are tracked, such as a button, link, or any element with the class frosmo-click. If the modification has no clickable parts, it cannot get a click. A click is also automatically registered as a true display.

See also: True display


Click-through rateCTR

The ratio of clicks to displays or true displays that the modification gets. The Frosmo Platform tracks CTR separately for displays and true displays.

See also: Click, Display, True display


Company

In the Frosmo Platform, a company typically represents a customer or partner account.

A company can have one or more sites. The settings of company affect all sites of that company. In the Frosmo Control Panel, a user who has access to a company automatically has access to all sites of the company.

See also: Site, User


Company user

A Frosmo Control Panel user with the "User" role. Company users are employees of Frosmo's customers, as opposed to Frosmo users, who are Frosmo employees.

See also: Frosmo user


Comparison group

In the Frosmo context, visitors who see the original content of a web page instead of modifications. The comparison group allows you to monitor modification performance as compared to your original content.

The Frosmo Platform automatically divides all visitors entering a site into two groups (A and B). If the comparison group is enabled for a modification, 10% of visitors (group B) do not see the modification, while the remaining 90% of visitors do (group A). If the comparison group is disabled for a modification, all visitors see the modification (groups A + B). Once a visitor is included in the comparison group, that visitor will not see any modifications on the site that have the comparison group enabled.

See also: Modification


Content delivery networkCDN

Network of global servers connected to each other and used to store and deliver web content, such as images, videos, style sheets, and JavaScript files. When a visitor browses a website, the content of the site is delivered by the CDN server with the fastest access to the visitor's location, decreasing page load time.

The Frosmo Platform uses highly reliable third-party CDNs to deliver the Frosmo JavaScript library and Frosmo-specific media files used on websites.


Content preloading

Content preloading enables loading modification content in the browser as a part of the custom script, which decreases the delay in displaying the modification (the flickering effect).

Content preloading has some limitations, however:

  • You can't use most of the advanced modification settings.
  • If there are several modifications using content preloading on the same site, loading the custom script will be slower.
  • Since the modification is cached in the browser, the risk of the visitors seeing outdated content increases.

You can enable content preloading in the advanced modification settings.


Context

In the Frosmo Platform, a context refers to visitor-specific data stored in the browser's local storage, including:

  • User ID
  • Segmentation data
  • Custom data, if defined

The local storage enables storing visitor data without having to send it to back end. Depending on the website, the Frosmo JavaScript library can use either the site's default, origin-specific local storage or, if the data needs to be shared between multiple origins, a cross-origin local storage implemented using an inline frame (iframe), also known as a shared context.

See also: Local storage, Origin, Shared context


Conversion

A conversion is an action you want your website visitors to take, such as purchasing a product, launching a game, signing up for a newsletter, or watching a video. You can define a conversion to be basically any variable in visitor behavior that you want to measure. What exactly you want to define as a conversion depends on your business goals.

See also: Transaction


Conversion data

Conversion information collected from a site through conversion tracking. In the Frosmo Platform, the data for a conversion includes an ID, type, monetary or other value, and description.

See also: Data layer


Conversion definition

A conversion definition describes a single conversion to be tracked on a site. Conversion definitions are an alternative to data layer events for setting up conversion tracking for a site.

Conversion definitions are based on triggers, which allow you to detect a particular event, such as a click, on a web page and take a predefined action based on that event. The trigger for a conversion definition, therefore, represents the visitor action (event) that you want to track as a conversion on the site.

You create and manage conversion definitions in the Frosmo Control Panel.

See also: ConversionConversion tracking


Conversion rateCR

Percentage of all visitors that actually make a conversion. The conversion rate is calculate using the following formula:

(conversions / unique visitors) x 100

The conversion rate is constantly fluctuating due to seasonal changes, marketing campaigns, and sales.


Conversion rate optimizationCROApproach for improving the performance of a website by increasing the proportion of visitors that complete a conversion. Optimization is based on systematically testing different versions of content or process.Conversion optimization
Conversion tracking

Process of counting conversions on a site to measure how successfully the site is meeting its business goals. Conversion tracking is a prerequisite for conversion rate optimization.

In the Frosmo Platform, and in a more technical sense, conversion tracking is the automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions that qualify as conversions and sending the data about those actions (conversion data) to the Frosmo back end. Conversion tracking also involves counting conversions and attributing them to modifications, which the platform does automatically when it receives conversion data from a site.

See also: ConversionConversion definitionData layer, Transaction tracking


Conversion type

Every conversion has a type. The type describes the category or kind of conversion that took place.

The Frosmo Platform has a single reserved conversion type, "transaction", which the platform automatically applies to transactions as part of transaction tracking. You can freely define the type of non-transaction conversions in conversion tracking.

See also: Conversion, Conversion definition, Conversion tracking, Transaction, Transaction tracking


Conversion value

You can set the conversion value as a part of a conversion definition for your site. Normally, the conversion value is the monetary value of the conversion, but you can define it to be any numerical value or leave it undefined. When a visitor completes the conversion, the given value is assigned to it.

If the conversion value is 0 or undefined, the number of conversions is shown in the conversion statistics, but the value of the conversions cannot be calculated.

See also: Conversion definition


Cookie
Small piece of data sent from a website and stored in the visitor's browser while the visitor is browsing. Cookies are used, for example, to remember temporary information (such as the contents of a visitor's shopping cart) or to track the visitor's browsing behavior.
Custom action

A custom action is any visitor action or state that you want to track and interact with on a website, and that is not a basic modification event, conversion, transaction, or product view. You can also use custom actions to find out where visitors are geographically located. The purpose of custom actions is to track what visitors are doing on a site or where they are located, and to use this information to dynamically modify their user experience in some way, for example, by showing specific content based on the page they are viewing or the city they are in.

See also: Custom action tracking

Custom event
Custom action tracking

Custom action tracking is the automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions and state changes that qualify as custom actions, and sending the data about those actions and state changes (custom action data) to the Frosmo back end.

Custom action tracking allows you to dynamically react to visitor behavior that is not tracked by conversions, transactions, or product views. You can use custom actions to, for example, show variable content based on the page a visitor is viewing or the city they are in.

See also: Custom action


Custom event

Custom events allow you to track modifications beyond clicks, displays, and true displays, which the platform handles automatically. A custom event can be about anything that you can do with or change in a modification.

Custom events are a part of the advanced tracking feature of the Frosmo Platform.

See also: Advanced tracking


Custom extension

A custom extension is an external application you can develop and then add to the Frosmo Control Panel as a new page.

For example, instead of adding product data to a spreadsheet, you can create a form to enter the data directly in the FCP. Or, if your company has multiple sites and you need to regularly synchronize content or configurations between the sites, you can create an application for handling these tasks in the FCP.

Only Frosmo customer teams can create custom extensions. For more information, contact Frosmo support.


Custom renderer

In the Frosmo context, custom renderer is a site-specific function to change the default placement functionality or to add new functionality. Custom renderers can be used, for example, to show a modification only when the visitor scrolls the page, or to implement a specific type of click tracking.

Only Frosmo customer teams can create custom renderers. For more information, contact Frosmo support.


Custom script

The Frosmo custom script contains the configurations for customer-specific modifications to a website. The script also contains the segmentation rules and all other custom code for the site. The script runs on top of the Frosmo Core library and is unique to each site.

The Frosmo Core library and the Frosmo custom script form the Frosmo JavaScript library for a website. To start improving your website UI, you add these scripts to your site.

Frosmo custom script

D




Data layer
In the Frosmo Platform, the data layer is a global JavaScript object used for sending data from the customer's website to the Frosmo back end. This data is mainly used for conversion and product tracking.
Decile
In the Frosmo Platform, each visitor entering your website is randomly placed in one of ten deciles. The visitor stays in the same decile until the browser cache and cookies are cleared. You can use deciles in A/B testing: for example, you can determine that 50% (five of the ten deciles) of your target audience sees one modification whereas 50% (the remaining five deciles) sees another modification, or no modification at all.
Display

In the Frosmo context, a modification gets a display if Frosmo Core library has rendered the modification to the page. The display event does not require that the modification has been in the browser viewport and therefore visible to the visitor.

See also: True display


Display delay

Number of seconds after which the modification is displayed once the Frosmo script has been loaded. The delay timer starts when the modification placement is verified and the modification is ready to be displayed.

You can define the display delay in the advanced modification settings.


Display interval

Display interval determines how often the same modification can be shown to visitors. You can set the interval to seconds, minutes, hours, or days in the advanced modification settings.

For example, you can define that a visitor cannot see a specific modification more often than once in three hours.


Display method

In modification placements, the display method determines how the modification is placed in relation to the target element in the page code. For example, you define the modification content to replace the original content or appear before or after it.

You can define the display delay in the advanced modification settings.

See also: Placement


Document Object ModelDOM

In web technology, the Document Object Model (DOM) refers to an application programming interface (API) providing a structure for the contents of an HTML, XHTML, or XML file. The DOM allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure, and style of the files.

To render a HTML page, most web browsers use a model resembling the DOM. The nodes of the page are organized in a tree structure, called the "DOM tree". When a web page is loaded, the browser creates a Document Object Model of the page. You can then use JavaScript to modify the HTML, CSS, and events on the page.


Domain

In the Frosmo context, domain refers to an identification string used to identify internet resources, such as computers, networks, and services.

In a URL, domain (or domain name) is the part following the network protocol. For example, in the URL http://www.example.com/index.html, the domain is www.example.com.

Domain name

Host

E




Estimated conversions
You can view the estimated number of conversions for a segment in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The estimate is based on the average segment size and number of conversions during the time period you have selected for viewing. The Frosmo Platform assumes that the development in the segment size and conversion number will continue in a similar manner for the next equivalent time period; it does not take into account any seasonal changes or other anomalies.
Estimated revenue
You can view the estimated revenue for a segment in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The estimate is based on the average segment size and revenue per visitor during the time period you have selected for viewing. The Frosmo Platform assumes that the development in the segment size and revenue will continue in a similar manner for the next equivalent time period; it does not take into account any seasonal changes or other anomalies.
Event
An event is fired when a specific action (such as a page view or click) takes place. You can use events to trigger other actions, such as modification displays, and create segments based on visitor actions. Events in the Frosmo context are analogous to JavaScript events. 
Exposure
Exposure of a modification means the percentage of visitors on a website to whom the modification has been displayed during the last month.

F




Flickering
Flickering means that the original content of a web page appears for a short while (up to one second) before a content modification is loaded and displayed. Flickering may distract and confuse a visitor. The easiest way to prevent it is to place the Frosmo scripts in the <head> element of the page and use synchronous loading for the scripts.
Fold

The point at which web page content disappears below the bottom edge of the browser window. The fold typically refers to the demarcation point immediately after page load. In other words, the fold is the bottom of the browser viewport before any scrolling occurs.

"Above the fold" refers to the portion of the web page visible without scrolling down. This is the prime real estate of a web page.

"Below the fold" refers to the portion of the web page that becomes visible only when the visitor scrolls down.

Since screen resolutions, window sizes, and display settings vary between browsers, devices, and users, so does the precise location of the fold. There is no standard height for the area above the fold.

See also: Viewport


Front end

Parts of an application or website with which a user directly interacts, namely the graphical user interface (GUI). In UI development, front-end (or client-side) design and operations are implemented mainly by using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

See also: Back end

Client-side system
Frosmo Control PanelFCP

The Frosmo Control Panel is the user interface you use to access the Frosmo Platform features. When you create and edit segments and modifications in the Control Panel, the changes are reflected in the JavaScript file customized for your website.

The Control Panel also contains a comprehensive set of analytics, so that you can easily view conversion data, segment behavior, and the performance of individual modifications on your site.


Frosmo Core libraryFrosmo CoreFrosmo Core library implements the core functionality and services of the Frosmo JavaScript solution. The library manages modifications and segmentation, collects usage data, and fetches modification content from the back end. The library is the same for all customers and sites.
Frosmo Data PipelineFDP

Set of components in the Frosmo back end that provides a single, consistent means of sending data to and retrieving data from the back end, and for processing and storing that data.

The Data Pipeline is used, for example, in advanced tracking and when generating recommendations.


Frosmo ID

Unique identifier that the Frosmo Platform automatically assigns to each new visitor on a site. The ID allows the platform to identify individual visitors and to retrieve data specific to them from the Frosmo back end.

Technically, the platform identifies browsers, not visitors. The ID by itself does not tell the platform who actually uses a browser. The platform only sees how the browser interacts with a site (with the assumption that there is a unique user operating the browser). To identify individual visitors, the ID can be combined with a separate login ID passed to the platform from the site.

There are two types of Frosmo IDs:

  • Local Frosmo ID: Used to identify a visitor inside a single site. This is the primary Frosmo ID.
  • Global Frosmo ID: Used to identify a visitor across all sites of a company.

Frosmo Platform

The Frosmo Platform is a web UI development solution for improving website functionality and personalizing online user experiences. The platform also provides public APIs and other tools for personalization and content development across different online channels and devices.

The main components of the platform are:

  • Frosmo JavaScript library, which handles the modifications to the site, manages segmentation, collects usage data, and fetches content to display from the back end. The library includes the Frosmo Core library and site-specific custom code.
  • Frosmo back end, which stores the usage data collected by the Frosmo JavaScript library and processes the data for reporting and analytics purposes. The back end also stores operational data related to modifications, segments, and other configurable components.
  • Frosmo Control Panel, which manages the Frosmo JavaScript library (and thereby how the site is modified and personalized) and pools analytics data from the Frosmo back end.

Frosmo Platform instance

Regional instance of the Frosmo Platform software. The platform is hosted on multiple regional servers for improved availability. While the servers all run the same platform software, each instance services its own set of customer websites based on geographic proximity.

The URLs of the Frosmo Control Panel, API endpoints, and other platform components are instance-specific.

The current main production instances are:

  • Asia
  • Europe 1 ("EU")
  • Europe 2 ("EU2")
  • Finland ("FI1")
  • US

Frosmo Platform region

Region

Frosmo Preview
A tool for displaying a modification based on the selected placement. You can use the preview tool to see how the modification looks and behaves before activating it, debugging the modification, and viewing and configuring site settings for the preview.
Frosmo user

An FCP user who is a Frosmo employee.

See also: Company user


Funnel
Sales or purchase funnel refers to the decision-making process of a consumer leading to a purchase. In eCommerce, conversion funnel refers to a visitor's journey from becoming aware of a product or service to making a purchase or otherwise completing a conversion. The journey typically consists of a series of discrete steps, from seeing an advertisement or a search result, to navigating the eCommerce site, and finally completing a conversion. Visitor retention within the funnel can be improved through conversion optimization.

G




Geo module
The Frosmo Geo API module allows you to determine geographic areas and distances that you can then use to target visitors based on their location. You can only use the Geo module to target desktop visitors (not mobile visitors). You can enable the Geo module for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel company settings.

I




Item

Anything that a site sells or offers to visitors, or that the site otherwise tracks for conversions or transactions. An item can be, for example, a retail product, a blog article, an online game, a magazine subscription, or a downloadable brochure.

In the documentation, "item" and "product" are used interchangeably.

See also: Item attribute, Item data, Product, Product tracking


Item attribute

A single characteristic of an item, such as an ID or a name. The attributes of an item together make up the item data for the item.

An item attribute is always composed of a name and a value, such as name: 'Coconut' or type: 'Food/Fruits'.

Product tracking determines what attributes the Frosmo Platform collects and stores about items on a site.

In the documentation, "item attribute" and "product attribute" are used interchangeably.

See also: Item, Item data, Product attribute, Product tracking


Item data

Item information collected from a site through product tracking. The data for an item typically includes attributes such as ID, name, category, description, image, and price.

Item data is a prerequisite for implementing recommendations and other features that revolve around items, such as segmenting visitors based on the types of items they have viewed.

In the documentation, "item data" and "product data" are used interchangeably.

See also: Item, Item attribute, Product data, Product tracking


L




Label
Labels are short text tags that you can attach to modifications to filter modifications more easily. A label can be any word that helps you categorize or identify modifications. You can create labels in the Frosmo Control Panel or through the Graniitti API.
Landing pageLP

By definition, a landing page is any web page through which a visitor enters a site, such as the site home page or a campaign page.

However, in online marketing and ecommerce, landing page normally refers to a standalone web page that appears after a visitor clicks a search result or an online ad. The purpose of the page is to encourage the visitor to take a predefined action. The goal of that action can be lead generation (getting the visitor's contact information) or "warming up" the visitor to enter the conversion funnel to make a purchase (for example, presenting product information or a special deal).

Destination page

Lander

Layout shift

A layout shift occurs when visible content loads at different speeds or at different times on a web page, causing the page layout to dynamically change in the browser viewport while the visitor is viewing and possibly interacting with the page.

A layout shift can be intended, such as when a container expands in response to a visitor action.

An unexpected layout shift occurs when some content loads slower than other content, or when content is dynamically added to the page, resulting in the already loaded content unexpectedly changing its position when new content gets added to the page. For example, an asynchronously loaded ad banner at the top of the page might complete loading only after the rest of the page is already rendered, causing the existing content to suddenly move downwards.


Local cookie totalLCT

Number of visitors currently segmented.

The local cookie total is calculated daily. The calculation starts after midnight local (server) time for the previous 24-hour period. Some visitors may be segmented and then exit the segment during the same day. Therefore, the total number of visitors for a day may be higher than the local cookie total.


Local storage

Web applications use local storage to store data in the visitor's browser. All pages from the same origin (protocol and domain) can use and access the same data.

The localStorage object stores the data with no expiration date. The data persists when the browser is closed and will be available for the subsequent browsing sessions.

Unlike cookies, local storage does not affect the performance of the website.

See also: Context, Origin, Session storage

Cache

M




Modification
In the Frosmo context, a real-time change to a web page designed to personalize or otherwise improve the user experience of the website and to guide visitors to complete a conversion. You can also use modifications to collect usage data from a site. You can place a modification in basically any web page element, either appending or replacing the element content.
Multi-armed bandit

The multi-armed bandit is a modification case for automatically managing and optimizing variation distribution. Multi-armed bandit modifications continuously adjust their variation distribution based on how well the variations perform over time. This way, the multi-armed bandit automatically shows the best-performing variation most often.

For more information, see Multi-armed bandit optimization.


N




Negative match

Negative match is a segment for visitors who do not take a specific action on a website. This is useful when you want to use segmentation to exclude visitors not interested in specific products or services from your target audience.

See also: Segmentation

Exclude segment

Exit rule

O




Origin

In the Frosmo context, "origin" has two distinct meanings:

Source of a web resource (web security concept)

The origin of a web resource, such as a web page, script, or image, is defined by the protocol (scheme), domain (host), and port of the URL used to access the resource. For example, in the web page URL http://company.com/dir/index.html, the protocol is http, the domain is company.com, and the port is, by default, 80. If two web pages (for example, http://company.com/dir/index.html and http://company.com/dir/page.html) share the same values for these elements, they are considered to have the same origin. The URLs http://company.com/dir/index.html and http://company.com:81/dir/index.html therefore have different origins, as the latter uses port 81

The same-origin policy is a security mechanism that prevents scripts running on a website from accessing the data on pages with a different origin.

Using shared context (a cross-origin local storage) enables data to be shared between multiple origins.

Site name in the Frosmo Platform

When you create a site in the Frosmo Control Panel, you must enter the complete URL of the site. The URL determines the name used to identify the site in the site's custom script and in the Frosmo back end. This name is also known as "origin" or "site origin".

See also: Domain, Shared context, URL


P




Page load time
Time (normally in seconds) it takes to download and display the entire content of a web page in the visitor's browser viewport.
Path
The path in a URL reflects the directory or file path on a computer. For example, in the URL http://www.example.com/index.html, the path is /index.html.
Perceived performance

Perceived performance refers to how fast a visitor thinks your website is regardless of how fast it technically performs.

There are several ways to make your website feel faster, such as adding progress indicators, and using button states and lazy loading.


Personalization

Making real-time changes to a website based on the attributes and behavior of the visitor. The goal of personalization is to provide a more relevant user experience and, as a result, drive conversion and create revenue. Personalization can also be used to cross-sell or upsell products and create brand loyalty through engagement.

Technically, web personalization is implemented by applying specific changes to the website based on visitor segmentation or other methods of gathering behavior data and triggering events based on it.

In the Frosmo Control Panel, personalization also refers to a modification case for creating a piece content that you can customize for a specific target audience.

See also: Case


Placement

A placement determines where on the web page a modification is placed. In the page code, the modification is always placed in relation to a specific target element. How and where the modification is actually displayed on the page depends on the page layout.

You can create and modify placements through Frosmo Control Panel.


Preview URL

Preview URL is the absolute URL of a page where you can preview modifications assigned to a placement.

The Control Panel uses the preview URL for launching variation previews from the modification UI.


Priority

If there are several modifications with the same placement settings, priority determines which of the modifications is displayed first.

You can define the priority for a modification in the advanced modification settings.


Product

Anything that a site sells or offers to visitors, or that the site otherwise tracks for conversions or transactions. A product can be, for example, a retail product, a blog article, an online game, a magazine subscription, or a downloadable brochure.

In the documentation, "item" and "product" are used interchangeably.

See also: Item, Product attribute, Product data, Product tracking, Product variant


Product attribute

A single characteristic of a product, such as an ID or a name. The attributes of a product together make up the product data for the product.

A product attribute is always composed of a name and a value, such as name: 'Coconut' or type: 'Food/Fruits'.

Product tracking determines what attributes the Frosmo Platform collects and stores about products on a site.

In the documentation, "item attribute" and "product attribute" are used interchangeably.

See also: Item attribute, Product, Product data, Product tracking


Product data

Product information collected from a site through product tracking. The data for a product typically includes attributes such as ID, name, category, description, image, and price.

Product data is a prerequisite for implementing recommendations and other features that revolve around products, such as segmenting visitors based on the types of products they have viewed.

In the documentation, "item data" and "product data" are used interchangeably.

See also: Item data, Product, Product attribute, Product tracking


Product tracking

Product tracking is the automatic process of collecting product data from a site and counting the number of views different products receive from visitors. Product data and product view statistics are stored in the Frosmo back end.

Product tracking is essential for building a database of products to which transactions and other product conversions can be mapped, and for tracking which products visitors view. Product data and product view statistics are a prerequisite for implementing recommendations and other features that revolve around products, such as segmenting visitors based on the types of products they have viewed.

The Frosmo Platform collects product data either by pulling the data directly from product pages as they load in a visitor's browser or by reading the data from a product data feed. On a product page, the standard means of providing the product data is by triggering product view events through the data layer.

See also: Product, Product dataProduct viewData layer


Product variant

Product variants are versions of the same product that differ with regard to one or more attributes, such as color and size. For example, a smartphone model might have variants for different color and storage capacity combinations, while a shirt might have variants based on color and size.

In the Frosmo Platform, a product variant is always associated with a parent product, and a product variant can never be a parent product itself. For recommendation generation purposes, the platform calculates product variant statistics (views, conversions, transactions) for the parent product.

See also: Product, Product data


Product view

In a general sense, a product view is a visitor action whereby the visitor views product information on a site, typically on a product page.

In a technical sense, a product view is an event that gets triggered whenever a visitor navigates to a product page or otherwise views a product on a site. Product view events accumulate product data and product view statistics for the site. Product view events are part of product tracking.

See also: Product, Product tracking


Q




Query string

Part of the URL of a web page that contains search parameters for searching a dynamic website. A query string starts with the "?" character, and consists of a key and value separated by the "=" character. For example, in the URL http://www.example.com/index.html?search=term, the key is search and the value is term.

If there are several query parameters in a query string appended to a URL, they are separated with the "&" character.

In the Frosmo context, you can use query strings when creating segments and triggers.


R




Recommendation

In the Frosmo Platform, a recommendation is a piece of dynamically generated content predicted to appeal to visitors and delivered through a modification. The platform generates recommendations by feeding usage data to one or more algorithms that produce relevant results from that data. The platform subsystem that controls recommendation generation is called Frosmo Recommendations.

Product recommendations, that is, recommendations generated from product and transaction data are a common category of recommendations. Examples of product recommendations include most viewed products and products purchased together.

In the documentation, "recommendation" can refer either to a set of recommended items displayed in a single web page element, such as the top 10 most viewed products displayed in a product slider, or to the modification that displays the recommendation on the site.

See also: Recommendation data, Usage data


Recommendation configuration

Logic and settings for generating the raw data of a recommendation.

Recommendation configurations are a legacy solution replaced by recommendation strategies.

See also: Recommendation, Recommendation dataRecommendation strategy


Recommendation data

Raw data content of a recommendation, that is, the recommendation results. The data consists of the details of one or more recommended items. By default, the items are in descending order of rank, with the most recommended item (as defined by the algorithm) ranked highest.

For example, for a product recommendation, the data consists of one or more product items, with each item containing the details of a single recommended product. The product details include information such as ID, name, type, image, and price. The highest-ranked product is returned first, the second-highest is returned second, and so on.

The Frosmo Recommendations system generates recommendation data based on recommendation strategies (standard solution) and recommendation configurations (legacy solution). The system automatically regenerates the data at regular time intervals. The exact regeneration frequency depends on the strategy or configuration settings.

Recommendation data serves as the basis for building the visible recommendation web element on the page.

See also: RecommendationRecommendation configurationRecommendation strategy


Recommendation strategy

Logic and settings for generating the raw data of a recommendation.

Recommendation strategies are the standard solution for generating recommendations.

See also: Recommendation, Recommendation data


Referrer
Visit referrer is the web page from which a visitor comes to your site. For example, if the visitor searches Google with the query "example" and accesses your website http://www.example.com from the search results, the Google web page is the referrer.
Region

See Frosmo Platform instance.


Regular expressionregex

A regular expression, or regex, is a string of characters defining a search pattern. Regexes are generally used in string processing in search engines and database queries. The regex syntax varies depending on the programming language being used.

In the Frosmo context, you can use regexes in segmentation when creating or editing segmentation rules with options that support regular expressions (URL, protocol, domain, path, and anchor). You can also use regexes when defining URL rules for placements and triggers.


Retention
On a web page, a modification is always placed in relation to a specific target element. A placement determines that target element, that is, where on the web page the modification is shown. You can create and modify placements through the Frosmo Control Panel.Returning visitor

S




Sample size calculator

In the Frosmo context, the sample size calculator is a tool in the Frosmo Control Panel for determining how many subjects are needed for an A/B test to get a result that is statistically significant.

See also: A/B testing


Segment

Group of visitors who share the same interests, location, website behavior, or other characteristics. Segments are used to target visitors with content that matches their needs, making the purchase funnel faster and the overall visitor experience more pleasant.

See also: Segment group, Segmentation


Segment group

You can use segment groups to:

  • Categorize segments and thus manage them more easily. For example, you can group similar segments to add them more easily in the audience settings of a modification.
  • Make segments mutually exclusive within a segment group. This means that a visitor can only be in one segment within a segment group. For example, you can define segments for visitors in major cities. If a visitor is currently segmented in city A, but gets segmented again in city B, they are automatically excluded from the segment for city A.

Segment groups are site-specific.

See also: Segment, Segmentation


Segmentation

Grouping website visitors based on their behavior, location, or other variables to enable effective adaptive content. You can define a set of rules that place a visitor into one or more segments – or remove a visitor from them. Segments are used to target specific types of visitors with content that meets their interests. Content variations displayed to a visitor depend on the segment that the visitor is in.

See also: Segment, Segment group


Selector

In the Frosmo context, a selector is used to specify a target element in which to place a modification. Selectors use CSS or jQuery syntax.

You can select or create the target elements in placement settings in the Frosmo Control Panel. To use jQuery selectors, your site must have jQuery enabled.

For CSS, the valid selectors depend on the browser versions you want your site to support, and for jQuery, on the jQuery version used on your site.

See also: Target element


Session
Session is the period of time a visitor spends browsing your site. In technical terms, session is a sequence of HTTP requests made by a single visitor during a continuous period of time. One session can include multiple page views, events, and transactions. In the Frosmo Platform, a session expires when a visitor has been inactive for 30 minutes. If the visitor continues browsing the site after this, the activity is logged in as a new session.
Session source

Session source is the web page from which the visitor arrives to your site. It can also be direct traffic, which means that the visitor didn't come from another website but, for example, through a bookmark or by typing the URL directly in their browser.

You can define the session source(s) for a modification in the advanced modification settings to determine the visitors to whom the modification is displayed. You can view the session sources for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The session source is defined on domain level. You can only define the session source for basic modifications.

See also: Visit referrer


Session storage

Session storage is used to store data in the visitor's browser for the active tab and the duration of the current browsing session. When the visitor closes the active browser tab or window, the data is removed.

See also: Local storage, Session


Shared context

Shared context is a cross-origin local storage implemented using an inline frame (iframe). It allows storing visitor data across protocols and domains without having to send it to the back end, which in turn allows the data to be stored only once and the visitor to be treated as a single user within the service.

A common example of the shared context is a site that uses both HTTP and HTTPS to deliver a service. This requires data to be shared between two origins. Using a shared context allows the origins to be treated as one and the same.

You can enable shared context for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel site settings when you create a new site.

See also: Origin

Multiple domain support
Site

In the Frosmo Platform, a site represents an actual website of a company. Each site has its own custom script that contains the Frosmo-specific configurations and custom code for the website. Each site also has its own dedicated set of data and statistics tracked by the Frosmo Platform on the website.

A site typically corresponds to a single domain or subdomain, such as company.com or shop.company.com, but you can also manage multiple domains and subdomains with just one site. You can create multiple sites for a company. A site always belongs to a single company.

By default, the Frosmo Platform does not enforce the same-origin policy (which only allows scripts that have the same origin as a site to access data on that site).

See also: Company, Origin

Website
Sizzle selector module

Sizzle is a JavaScript CSS selector engine that supports CSS3 and jQuery selectors as well as other types of selectors and pseudo-selectors. Using Sizzle allows you to select elements on a web page based on their CSS syntax.

You can enable Sizzle for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel company settings.


State

Custom action that you can use to control whether the modification is shown to a visitor. For example, you can define that the modification is only shown to visitors that are logged in, or visitors using a specific language version of the site.

You can define a state for a modification in the advanced modification settings.


Statistical significance calculator

When testing UI modifications, you want to be sure that you get valid results from your tests. Statistical significance calculator is a tool for determining how many visitors you need (at the least) to reach statistical significance in an A/B test. The calculator calculates whether the difference in the values for a particular metric (click-through rate or conversion rate) for different variations is statistically significant.

You can calculate the statistical significance of your tests in the Frosmo Control Panel, modification analytics.

Sample size calculator
Super-Affinity

Affinity.

While this feature is officially known as "Super-Affinity", the documentation talks about "affinity" for simplicity.

See also: Affinity


T




Tag manager

A tag manager is a container for controlling the deployment of all other (mostly third-party) tags through a web interface. When using a tag manager, you place a single JavaScript tag (the tag manager's master tag) on every page of your website, and manage running all other scripts through that master tag.

You can use the Frosmo Platform as a tag manager to control the other JavaScript tags on your site.


Target element

A modification is always placed on a web page in relation to a specific target element. The target element can be basically any HTML element or CSS selector. If your site has jQuery enabled, you can also use jQuery selectors.

See also: Selector


Template

A template allows you to define web content once and then reuse that content across multiple modifications on your site.

The content defined in a template can be any combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Template content can also include placeholder elements, which get replaced with specific values in individual modifications that use the template.

When you create a template, you define two key components that together specify how the template works:

  • Content. This is the HTML, CSS, and JavaScript that make up the template content and define what gets rendered on the page.
  • Content options schema. This is a JSON schema that describes the content options for the template.

Test mode

Test mode allows you to show modifications only to certain visitors for testing purposes. To use test mode, you must enable it for modifications in the Frosmo Control Panel and then activate test mode in the browser.

See also: Workspace


Tracking variation
A tracking variation is used to track the original content of a web page or site to compare it against other modification variations. You can use tracking variations instead of the comparison group when you want to show the original content to more than 10% of visitors.
Transaction

A transaction is the simultaneous purchase of one or more products. The Frosmo Platform registers each transaction, irrespective of the number of products purchased, as a single conversion.

See also: Conversion, Product


Transaction data

Product purchase information collected from a site through transaction tracking. In the Frosmo Platform, the data for a transaction includes a list of purchased products and optionally a transaction ID and the total purchase value of the transaction. You can use transaction data to, for example, create product recommendations.

See also: Data layer


Transaction tracking

Transaction tracking is the automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions that qualify as transactions and sending the data about those actions (transaction data) to the Frosmo back end. Transaction tracking also involves counting transactions as conversions and attributing those conversions to modifications, which the Frosmo Platform does automatically when it receives transaction data from a site.

Transaction tracking allows you to monitor the revenue generated by your site and measure Frosmo's impact on that revenue. Transaction tracking is also a prerequisite for implementing features that rely on transaction data, such as generating recommendations and segmenting visitors based on the products they have purchased, which in turn feed into revenue generation.

See also: Transaction, ConversionConversion tracking, Data layer


Trigger

A trigger allows you to detect a particular event, such as a click, on a web page and take a predefined action based on that event.

You can use triggers in:

  • Conversion definitions to track conversions
  • Placements to determine when to display a modification
  • Segmentation by defining that a visitor is segmented when their actions fire a specific trigger

A trigger consists of two parts: the evaluation point (the event on the web page that causes the Frosmo Platform to check whether to fire the trigger) and the rule(s) for firing the trigger. You don't have to define any rules if you want the trigger to be fired every time an event takes place.

For example, you can configure a trigger to be fired when the Frosmo script is loaded (= evaluation point) if the current page URL is www.frosmo.com (= rule). Or, you can determine a trigger to be fired every time a visitor click a specific button (= evaluation point, no rules).


True display

In the Frosmo context, a modification gets a true display when it has remained visible and stationary in the browser viewport for at least 3 seconds. In addition, if the modification's width and height are both less than or equal to 300 pixels, the modification must have been fully in the viewport. If the modification's width or height is greater than 300 pixels, at least 75% of the modification must have been in the viewport.

See also: Display


U




Unique visitor
Unique visitors are distinct individuals (or at least distinct Frosmo IDs stored in the browser's local storage) visiting a site during a given period of time. A visitor can visit the site many times or open many simultaneous sessions during that period. Tracking unique visitors helps you understand how visitors behave on your site.Unique user
URL

URL, or Uniform Resource Locator, is a reference specifying the location of a web resource and means to access that resource.

The URL of a web page contains several parts, the most important being protocol and domain.

See also: Domain, Path, Query string

Web address
URL matcher
URL matchers are used in the Frosmo Control Panel when working with placements and triggers. For placements, you use URL matchers to determine the URL of the page on which a modification is displayed. For triggers, you use URL matchers to determine the conditions for firing the trigger.
Usage data

Data that the Frosmo Platform collects or tracks on a site for analytics and personalization purposes. The data drives much of what the platform does, such as generate recommendations and segment visitors.

Usage data consists of:

  • Modification performance data (event counts and related metrics)
  • Product data (product or similar item details)
  • Visitor data (including completed conversions and transactions)

By default, the platform collects and processes only anonymous and pseudonymous information about visitors and their behavior on a website. The platform does not collect data that in itself enables the identification of an individual data subject.

See also: Conversion data, Product data, Transaction data


User
Person using the Frosmo Control Panel or other Frosmo applications or services, such as Frosmo Preview.

V




Variation

In the Frosmo context, variations are different content versions of the same modification. 

The number of variations you can create for a modification depends on the selected modification case:

  • A/B test: Create two or more variations to test which variation performs best.
  • Multi-armed bandit: Create two or more variations. The selected multi-armed bandit algorithm decides the best-performing variation.
  • Personalization: The modification can only have a single variation.

A visitor is assigned to a specific variation until they clean the browser cache, open a new window in incognito mode, or visit the site from another device.

See also: Case

Revision
Variation distribution

Variation distribution determines the percentage of eligible visitors to whom a specific modification variation is actually shown.

How the variation distribution is defined depends on the selected modification case:

  • A/B test: Manually define the variation distribution.
  • Multi-armed bandit: The selected multi-armed bandit algorithm decides the best-performing variation and adjusts the variation distribution accordingly.
  • Personalization: The modification can only have a single variation and all eligible visitors get that variation.

If the modification has an active comparison group variation, 10% of visitors entering the website will not see the modification.

See also: Case


Viewport

In a web browser, the viewport is the part of the browser UI that displays the web page (web document). The viewport, or browser viewport, therefore generally refers to the portion of the web page currently visible in the browser.

See also: Fold

Browser viewport
Visit referrer

Visit referrer is the page from which a visitor has arrived from your site. You can segment your visitors based on the referrer of their visit on URL, protocol, domain, or path level. Visitors segmented based on the visit referrer stay in the segment for a predefined period of time (1-365 days).

See also: Session source


Visitor

User of a website.

See also: Unique visitor


Visitor affinity
See Affinity.

W




Weight

If there are several modifications with the same placement settings and priority, weight determines which of the modifications is displayed most often.

For example, if modification A has a weight of 1 and modification B a weight of 3, modification A is shown 1 / (1 + 3) = 25% of the time and modification B 3 / (1 + 3) = 75% of the time.

You can define the weight of a modification in the advanced modification settings.


Workspace

An add-on to the Frosmo Platform that allows you to develop and test site features in the Frosmo Control Panel without affecting the live content of your site. You can either duplicate existing features or create new ones in a workspace, and, when you so choose, publish the features to production.

See also: Test mode