The Frosmo glossary is a dictionary of the commonly used terminology around web UI development and the Frosmo Platform.
|A/B testing||Most common way to test optimized or personalized content. In A/B testing, you split your visitors into two groups (A and B, respectively) and show different content variations to those groups. When the variations have been seen by enough visitors you can analyze their performance to see which content variation performed the best, for example, resulted in the highest conversion rate or average order value.||Split testing|
|Content on a website or in an email that changes based on the visitor's behavior, location, and other variables, creating a customized user experience. One of the most common applications of adaptive content is to provide product recommendations in a web store based on the visitor's profile and behavior. In Frosmo, adaptive content is created using modifications.|
The advanced tracking feature extends the basic tracking functionality of the Frosmo Platform with custom events. Custom events allow you to track modifications beyond clicks, displays, and true displays. You implement advanced tracking with a Frosmo Core function in custom code or in modification content. For the function to work, the advanced tracking module must be enabled for the site.
See also: Custom event
Annotations are dated notes associated with a site and shown in timeline-based statistics views. You can add an annotation to a specific calendar date to easily detect whether there has been a change in your site statistics during or after that date.
For example, you can create an annotation for a day you launch a new feature on your site. Later, you can easily view how the launch has affected the traffic, visitor retention, conversions for your site, or the performance of a specific modification.
|Average conversions per unique user||ACPUU|
Average number of conversions completed during a specified period of time by all unique visitors on your site.
See also: Unique visitor
|Average conversions per paying user||ACPPU||Average number of conversions completed during a specified period of time by visitors that complete a conversion on your site.|
|Average order value||AOV|
Average order value is, as the name suggests, the total revenue from orders divided by the number of orders. It is an important metric for online businesses to understand their customers' buying habits in order to optimize them.
At Frosmo, average order value is commonly used for measuring the impact of product recommendations, such as the upsell or cross-sell they generate.
|Average revenue per paying user||ARPPU||Average revenue brought by converted visitors during a specified period of time.|
|Average revenue per unique user||ARPUU|
Average revenue brought by all unique visitors on your site during a specified period of time.
See also: Unique visitor
Back-end (or server-side) systems consist of databases, data processing components, and other server infrastructures that handle operations not directly visible to website visitors. An important function of the back-end system is to launch programs and operations in response to front-end system requests.
See also: Front end
|Call to action||CTA||In web design and online marketing, a call to action is a visual element, such as a banner, button, or link, prompting the visitor to take some action (normally by clicking the element). The purpose of inviting a response from the visitor is to create leads and attract the visitor to enter the conversion funnel.|
In the Frosmo context, a modification gets a click if the visitor has clicked a part of the modification for which clicks are tracked, such as a button, link, or any element with the class
See also: True display
The ratio of clicks to displays or true displays that the modification gets. The Frosmo Platform tracks CTR separately for displays and true displays.
In the Frosmo Platform, a company normally represents a customer account. A company can have multiple sites. Each company has certain settings that affect all sites of that company, such as specific security and modification settings, and which add-ons are enabled for the company.
See also: Site
A Frosmo Control Panel user with the "User" role. Company users are employees of Frosmo's customers, as opposed to Frosmo users, who are Frosmo employees.
See also: Frosmo user
|Comparison group||In the Frosmo context, visitors that will see the original content of a web page, not a modification. All visitors are automatically divided into two groups (a and b). If the comparison group feature is enabled for a modification in Frosmo Control Panel, 10% of visitors entering the website (group b) will not see the modification. Once a visitor is included in the comparison group, that visitor will not see any modifications with the feature enabled.|
Content delivery network
In the Frosmo Platform, a context refers to visitor-specific data stored in the browser's local storage, including:
|Conversion||Pre-determined action you want your website visitors to take. This can be, for example, a purchase of a product, signing up for a newsletter, downloading a brochure, or watching a video. You can define a conversion to be basically any variable in visitor behavior that you want to measure. What exactly counts as a conversion depends on your business goals.|
Visitor action defined as a conversion in Frosmo Control Panel. In the definition settings, you must set a trigger to track conversions. In addition, you can set several options for the definition, such as conversion type and the minimum time interval between conversions.
See also: Conversion tracking
Percentage of all visitors that actually make a conversion. The conversion rate is calculate using the following formula:
(conversions / unique visitors) x 100
The conversion rate is constantly fluctuating due to seasonal changes, marketing campaigns, and sales.
|Conversion rate optimization||CRO||Approach for improving the performance of a website by increasing the proportion of visitors that complete a conversion. Optimization is based on systematically testing different versions of content or process.|
|Conversion tracking||Process used to count conversions and attribute them to displayed or clicked content.|
You can set the conversion value as a part of a conversion definition for your site. Normally, the conversion value is the monetary value of the conversion, but you can define it to be any numerical value or leave it undefined. When a visitor completes the conversion, the given value is assigned to it.
If the conversion value is 0 or undefined, the number of conversions is shown in the conversion statistics, but the value of the conversions cannot be calculated.
See also: Conversion definition
|Cookie||Small piece of data sent from a website and stored in the visitor's browser while the visitor is browsing. Cookies are used, for example, to remember temporary information (such as the contents of a visitor's shopping cart) or to track the visitor's browsing behavior.|
|Custom actions can be used to supplement the basic segmentation rules available in the Frosmo Control Panel. For example, you can define a custom action to be triggered when a visitor is in a certain geographical region. You can then create a segment based on the custom action to target visitors in that region.||Custom event|
You can use custom combinations to define segments included in a target group. Using custom combinations allows you to create more refined target audiences for your content. Custom combinations also allow you to analyze segments to find out if and how they overlap.
Custom events allow you to track modification performance beyond clicks, displays, and true displays, which the platform handles automatically. A custom event can be about anything that you can do with or change in a modification. Custom events are a part of the advanced tracking feature of the Frosmo Platform.
See also: Advanced tracking
A custom module is an external application you can develop and then add to the Frosmo Control Panel as a new page. For example, instead of adding product data to a spreadsheet, you can create a form to enter the data directly in the FCP. Or, if your company has multiple sites and you need to regularly synchronize content or configurations between the sites, you can create an application for handling these tasks in the FCP.
Only Frosmo customer teams can create custom modules. For more information, contact your Frosmo representative.
In the Frosmo context, custom renderer is a site-specific function to change the default placement functionality or to add new functionality. Custom renderers can be used, for example, to show a modification only when the visitor scrolls the page, or to implement a specific type of click tracking.
Only Frosmo customer teams can create custom renderers. For more information, contact your Frosmo representative.
The Frosmo custom script contains the configurations for customer-specific modifications to a website. The script also contains the segmentation rules and all other custom code for the site. The script runs on top of the Frosmo Core library and is unique to each site.
|Frosmo custom script|
|Decile||In the Frosmo Platform, each visitor entering your website is randomly placed in one of ten deciles. The visitor stays in the same decile until the browser cache and cookies are cleared. You can use deciles in A/B testing: for example, you can determine that 50% (five of the ten deciles) of your target audience sees one modification whereas 50% (the remaining five deciles) sees another modification, or no modification at all.|
In the Frosmo context, a modification gets a display if Frosmo Core library has rendered the modification to the page. The display event does not require that the modification has been in the browser viewport and therefore visible to the visitor.
See also: True display
Number of seconds after which the modification is displayed once the Frosmo script has been loaded. The delay timer starts when the modification placement is verified and the modification is ready to be displayed.
You can define the display delay in the modification display options.
Display interval determines how often the same modification can be shown to visitors. You can set the interval to seconds, minutes, hours, or days in the modification display options.
For example, you can define that a visitor cannot see a specific modification more often than once in three hours.
In modification placements, the display method determines how the modification is placed in relation to the target element in the page code. For example, you define the modification content to replace the original content or appear before or after it.
You can define the display delay in the modification display options.
See also: Placement
|Document Object Model||DOM|
In web technology, the Document Object Model (DOM) refers to an application programming interface (API) providing a structure for the contents of an HTML, XHTML, or XML file. The DOM allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure, and style of the files.
|Domain||In the Frosmo context, domain refers to an identification string used to identify internet resources, such as computers, networks, and services. In a URL, domain, also called host, is the part following the network protocol. For example, in the URL ||Host|
|Estimated conversions||You can view the estimated number of conversions for a segment in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The estimate is based on the average segment size and number of conversions during the time period you have selected for viewing. The Frosmo Platform assumes that the development in the segment size and conversion number will continue in a similar manner for the next equivalent time period; it does not take into account any seasonal changes or other anomalies.|
|Estimated revenue||You can view the estimated revenue for a segment in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The estimate is based on the average segment size and revenue per visitor during the time period you have selected for viewing. The Frosmo Platform assumes that the development in the segment size and revenue will continue in a similar manner for the next equivalent time period; it does not take into account any seasonal changes or other anomalies.|
|Exposure||Exposure of a modification means the percentage of visitors on a website to whom the modification has been displayed during the last month.|
|Flickering means that the original content of a web page appears for a short while (up to one second) before a content modification is loaded and displayed. Flickering may distract and confuse a visitor. The easiest way to prevent it is to place the modification script in the <head> element of the page and use synchronous loading of the content.|
|FProxy||Frosmo-proprietary tool that allows you to download modification content to your local file system, edit the content in your own source code editor, and upload the content back to the Frosmo back end. FProxy consists of a command-line interface for downloading and developing modification content locally, and a proxy server for live-previewing and hot-reloading the content on your site during development.|
See also: Back end
|Frosmo Control Panel||FCP|
The Control Panel also contains a comprehensive set of analytics, so that you can easily view conversion data, segment behavior, and the performance of individual modifications on your site.
Identifier assigned to each new visitor to recognize the visitor on the Frosmo Platform in order to retrieve visitor-related data from the Frosmo back end. There are two types of Frosmo IDs:
The Frosmo Platform is a web UI development solution for improving website functionality and personalizing online user experience. The main components of the platform are:
An FCP user who is a Frosmo employee.
See also: Company user
|Funnel||Sales or purchase funnel refers to the decision-making process of a consumer leading to a purchase. In eCommerce, conversion funnel refers to a visitor's journey from becoming aware of a product or service to making a purchase or otherwise completing a conversion. The journey typically consists of a series of discrete steps, from seeing an advertisement or a search result, to navigating the eCommerce site, and finally completing a conversion. Visitor retention within the funnel can be improved through conversion optimization.|
|Geo module||The Frosmo Geo API module allows you to determine geographic areas and distances that you can then use to target visitors based on their location. You can only use the Geo module to target desktop visitors (not mobile visitors). You can enable the Geo module for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel company settings.|
|Labels are short text tags that you can attach to modifications to filter modifications more easily. A label can be any word that helps you categorize or identify modifications. You can create labels in the Frosmo Control Panel or through the Graniitti API.|
By definition, a landing page is any web page through which a visitor enters a site, such as the site home page or a campaign page.
However, in online marketing and ecommerce, landing page normally refers to a standalone web page that appears after a visitor clicks a search result or an online ad. The purpose of the page is to encourage the visitor to take a predefined action. The goal of that action can be lead generation (getting the visitor's contact information) or "warming up" the visitor to enter the conversion funnel to make a purchase (for example, presenting product information or a special deal).
|Local cookie total||LCT|
Number of visitors currently segmented.
The local cookie total is calculated daily. The calculation starts after midnight local (server) time for the previous 24-hour period. Some visitors may be segmented and then exit the segment during the same day. Therefore, the total number of visitors for a day may be higher than the local cookie total.
Web applications use local storage to store data in the visitor's browser. All pages from the same origin (protocol and domain) can use and access the same data.
Unlike cookies, local storage does not affect the performance of the website.
|Modification||In the Frosmo context, a real-time change to a web page designed to improve the usability and user experience of the website and guide visitors to complete a conversion. You can place a modification in basically any web page element. You create modifications through the Frosmo Control Panel.|
The multi-armed bandit is a feature for automatically managing and optimizing variation distribution for modifications. When enabled for a given modification, the multi-armed bandit continuously adjusts variation distribution for that modification based on how well the variations perform over time. This way, the multi-armed bandit automatically shows the best-performing modification.
For more information, see Optimizing modifications with the multi-armed bandit.
Negative match is a segment for visitors who do not take a specific action on a website. This is useful when you want to use segmentation to exclude visitors not interested in specific products or services from your target audience.
See also: Segmentation
The origin of a web page is defined by the protocol, domain (host), and port it uses. For example, in the URL
In the Frosmo context, using shared context (a cross-origin local storage) enables data to be shared between multiple origins.
|Page load time||Time (normally in seconds) it takes to download and display the entire content of a web page in the visitor's browser viewport.|
|The path in a URL reflects the directory or file path on a computer. For example, in the URL |
Perceived performance refers to how fast a visitor thinks your website is regardless of how fast it technically performs.
There are several ways to make your website feel faster, such as adding progress indicators, and using button states and lazy loading.
|Personalization||Making real-time changes to a website based on the attributes and behavior of the visitor. Technically, web personalization is implemented by applying specific changes to the website based on visitor segmentation. The goal of personalization is to provide a more relevant user experience and, as a result, drive conversion and create revenue. Personalization can also be used to cross-sell or upsell products and create brand loyalty through engagement.|
|Placement||On a web page, a modification is always placed in relation to a specific target element. A placement determines that target element, that is, where on the web page the modification is shown. You can create and modify placements through Frosmo Control Panel.|
|Preview tool||Frosmo tool for displaying a modification based on the selected placement. You can use the preview tool to see how the modification looks and behaves before activating it.|
If there are several modifications with the same placement settings, priority determines, which of the modifications is displayed first.
You can define the priority for a modification in the modification display options.
|Product tracking||Process used to track basic product data on a website, such as product names, categories, and prices, and the number of product page visits each product gets. You can use product data to, for example, create product recommendations.|
Part of the URL of a web page that contains search parameters for searching a dynamic website. A query string starts with the "?" character, and consists of a key and value separated by the "=" character. For example, in the URL
If there are several query parameters in a query string appended to a URL, they are separated with the "&" character.
|Recommendation||Modification generated from product data collected from a website. By default, the recommendations can be based on the most viewed or purchased products. It is also possible to create recommendations based on a visitor's previous behavior on the website.|
|Referrer||Visit referrer is the web page from which a visitor comes to your site. For example, if the visitor searches Google with the query "example" and accesses your website |
A regular expression, or regex, is a string of characters defining a search pattern. Regexes are generally used in string processing in search engines and database queries. The regex syntax varies depending on the programming language being used.
In the Frosmo context, you can use regexes in segmentation when creating or editing segmentation rules with options that support regular expressions (URL, protocol, domain, path, and anchor). You can also use regexes when defining URL rules for placements and triggers.
|Retention||On a web page, a modification is always placed in relation to a specific target element. A placement determines that target element, that is, where on the web page the modification is shown. You can create and modify placements through the Frosmo Control Panel.||Returning visitor|
|Sample size calculator|
In the Frosmo context, the sample size calculator is a tool in the Frosmo Control Panel for determining how many subjects are needed for an A/B test to get a result that is statistically significant.
See also: A/B testing
|Group of visitors who share the same interests, location, website behavior, or other characteristics relevant to content targeting.|
You can use segment groups to
Segment groups are site-specific. To segment visitors across sites, use target groups.
See also: Target group
|Segmentation||Grouping website visitors based on their behavior, location, or other variables to enable effective adaptive content. You can define a set of rules that place a visitor into one or more segments – or remove a visitor from them. Segments are used to target specific types of visitors with content that meets their interests. Content variations displayed to a visitor depend on the segment that the visitor is in.|
In the Frosmo context, a selector is used to specify a target element in which to place a modification. Selectors use CSS or jQuery syntax.
You can select or create the target elements in placement settings in the Frosmo Control Panel. To use jQuery selectors, your site must have jQuery enabled.
For CSS, the valid selectors depend on the browser versions you want your site to support, and for jQuery, on the jQuery version used on your site.
See also: Target element
|Session||Session is the period of time a visitor spends browsing your site. In technical terms, session is a sequence of HTTP requests made by a single visitor during a continuous period of time. One session can include multiple page views, events, and transactions. In the Frosmo Platform, a session expires when a visitor has been inactive for 30 minutes. If the visitor continues browsing the site after this, the activity is logged in as a new session.|
Session source is the web page from which the visitor arrives to your site. It can also be direct traffic, which means that the visitor didn't come from another website but, for example, through a bookmark or by typing the URL directly in their browser.
You can define the session source(s) for a modification in the modification display options to determine the visitors to whom the modification is displayed. You can view the session sources for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The session source is defined on domain level. You can only define the session source for basic modifications.
See also: Visit referrer
Session storage is used to store data in the visitor's browser for the active tab and the duration of the current browsing session. When the visitor closes the active browser tab or window, the data is removed.
Shared context is a cross-origin local storage implemented using an inline frame (iframe). It allows storing visitor data across protocols and domains without having to send it to the back end, which in turn allows the data to be stored only once and the visitor to be treated as a single user within the service.
A common example of the shared context is a site that uses both HTTP and HTTPS to deliver a service. This requires data to be shared between two origins. Using a shared context allows the origins to be treated as one and the same.
You can enable shared context for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel site settings when you create a new site.
See also: Origin
|Multiple domain support|
In the Frosmo Platform, a site represents an actual website of a company. Each site has its own custom script that contains the Frosmo-specific configurations and custom code for the website. Each site also has its own dedicated set of data and statistics tracked by the Frosmo Platform on the website.
A site typically corresponds to a single domain or subdomain, such as
By default, the Frosmo Platform does not apply same-origin policy (which only allows scripts of the same origin to access data on the site).
See also: Origin
|Sizzle selector module|
You can enable Sizzle for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel company settings.
Custom action that you can use to control whether the modification is shown to a visitor. For example, you can define that the modification is only shown to visitors that are logged in, or visitors using a specific language version of the site.
You can define a state for a modification in modification display options.
|Statistical significance calculator|
When testing UI modifications, you want to be sure that you get valid results from your tests. Statistical significance calculator is a tool for determining how many visitors you need (at the least) to reach statistical significance in an A/B test. The calculator calculates whether the difference in the values for a particular metric (click-through rate or conversion rate) for different variations is statistically significant.
You can calculate the statistical significance of your tests in the Frosmo Control Panel, modification analytics.
|Sample size calculator|
A modification is always placed on a web page in relation to a specific target element. The target element can be basically any HTML element or CSS selector. If your site has jQuery enabled, you can also use jQuery selectors.
See also: Selector
A target group combines multiple segments to produce a specified group of visitors for content targeting. Target groups allow for more complex and fine-tuned targeting than individual segments or segment groups. Target groups are company-specific, which means that they are valid across all sites of a given company.
See also: Segment group
|Template||Using templates for modifications allows you to define the UI code for a modification once and then automatically reuse that code in other modifications. Frosmo supports mustache.js templates.|
Test mode allows you to show modifications only to certain visitors for testing purposes. To use test mode, you must enable it for modifications in the Frosmo Control Panel and then activate test mode in the browser.
See also: Workspace
|Tracking variation||A tracking variation can be used to track the original content of a web page or site to compare it against other modification variations. You can use tracking variations instead of comparison group when you want to show the original content to more than 10% of visitors.|
In the Frosmo context, a transaction can mean two things:
A trigger allows you to detect a particular event on a web page and take a predefined action based on that event. For example, when a visitor views a specific page or product, or clicks a specific element, you can define a trigger to show related content to them.
You can use triggers in:
A trigger consists of two parts: the evaluation point (the event on the web page that causes the Frosmo Platform to check whether to fire the trigger) and the rule(s) for firing the trigger. You don't have to define any rules if you want the trigger to be fired every time an event takes place.
For example, you can configure a trigger to be fired when the Frosmo script is loaded (= evaluation point) if the current page URL is
In the Frosmo context, a modification gets a true display when it has remained visible and stationary in the browser viewport for at least 3 seconds. In addition, if the modification's width and height are both less than or equal to 300 pixels, the modification must have been fully in the viewport. If the modification's width or height is greater than 300 pixels, at least 75% of the modification must have been in the viewport.
See also: Display
|Unique visitor||Unique visitors are distinct individuals (or at least distinct Frosmo IDs stored in the browser's local storage) visiting a site during a given period of time. A visitor can visit the site many times or open many simultaneous sessions during that period. Tracking unique visitors helps you understand how visitors behave on your site.|
URL, or Uniform Resource Locator, is a reference specifying the location of a web resource and means to access that resource.
The URL of a web page contains several parts, the most important being protocol and domain.
|URL matcher||URL matchers are used in the Frosmo Control Panel when working with placements and triggers. For placements, you use URL matchers to determine the URL of the page on which a modification is displayed. For triggers, you use URL matchers to determine the conditions for firing the trigger.|
|User||Person using Frosmo Control Panel or other Frosmo tools.|
In the Frosmo context, variations are different content versions of the same modification. If a modification has only one variation, all visitors see that variation. If a modification has multiple variations, you can define how the variations are distributed among visitors.
A visitor is assigned to a specific variation until they clean the browser cache, open a new window in incognito mode, or visit the site from another device.
|Variation distribution||Variation distribution determines the percentage of eligible visitors to whom a specific modification variation is actually shown. You can define which proportion of the visitors sees each variation. If the comparison group is enabled for a modification in the Frosmo Control Panel, 10% of visitors entering the website will not see the modification.|
Visit referrer is the page from which a visitor has arrived from your site. You can segment your visitors based on the referrer of their visit on URL, protocol, domain, or path level.
Visitors segmented based on the visit referrer stay in the segment for a predefined period of time (1-365 days). To show an individual modification to visitors that have just arrived from a specific page, determine the visitor session sources in the modification display options.
See also: Session source
User of a website.
See also: Unique visitor
If there are several modifications with the same placement settings and priority, weight determines which of the modifications is displayed most often.
For example, if modification A has a weight of 1 and modification B a weight of 3, modification A is shown 1 / (1 + 3) = 25% of the time and modification B 3 / (1 + 3) = 75% of the time.
You can define the weight of a modification in the modification display options.
An add-on to the Frosmo Platform that allows you to develop and test site features in the Frosmo Control Panel without affecting the live content of your site. You can either duplicate existing features or create new ones in a workspace, and, when you so choose, publish the features to production.
See also: Test mode