Most common way to test optimized or personalized content. In A/B testing, you split your visitors into two or more groups (A, B, and so on) and show different content variations to those groups. When the variations have been seen by enough visitors you can analyze their performance to see which content variation performed the best, for example, resulted in the highest conversion rate or average order value.
In the Frosmo Control Panel, you can create an A/B test modification with two or more variations and define the distribution between the variations.
See also: Variation distribution
Advanced tracking extends the basic tracking functionality of the Frosmo Platform with custom events, which allow you to track modifications beyond clicks, displays, and true displays. A custom event can be about anything that you can do with or change in a modification.
See also: Custom event
Affinity measures a visitor's level of engagement with the items, such as retail products or online games, on a website. Affinity indicates what an individual visitor is interested in. The more a visitor interacts with specific items, and the more interest they therefore show in those items and the attributes they represent, the greater their affinity for the items and for similar items. You can use affinity to personalize the content that visitors interact with and the user journeys they experience based on their individual interests and preferences.
Affinity is measured along item attributes. A given affinity is always for a single attribute value, such as a specific category like "Mobile Phones" or "Roulette Games", rather than for a specific item. A visitor can have multiple affinities per item attribute. Each affinity has its own affinity score, which indicates the visitor's current level of affinity for that attribute value.
The Frosmo Platform automatically tracks affinities for each individual visitor in near real time. The totality of affinities tracked for a visitor make up the visitor's affinity profile.
See also: Affinity data, Affinity group, Affinity profile, Affinity score, item, item attribute
Any affinity-related data tracked or generated for a visitor and stored in the Frosmo back end. The data consists of the visitor's affinity profile and affinity group data.
See also: Affinity, Affinity group, Affinity group data, Affinity profile
|Visitor affinity data|
Group of visitors who share the same affinity.
The Frosmo Platform automatically creates and manages affinity groups for a site. You cannot create, edit, or remove affinity groups, but you can assign modifications to them and view statistics about them.
See also: Affinity, Affinity group data
|Visitor affinity group|
Any affinity-group-related data tracked or generated for a visitor on a site and stored in the Frosmo back end. The data consists of a list of the affinity groups to which the visitor currently belongs.
The Frosmo Platform automatically keeps a record of the affinity groups to which an individual visitor belongs.
See also: Affinity, Affinity group
|Visitor affinity group data|
Full record of a visitor's current affinities on a site. The profile lists all affinities (attribute name and value) and corresponding affinity scores tracked for the visitor in the past 60 days.
The Frosmo Platform automatically creates and maintains a dedicated affinity profile for each individual visitor.
See also: Affinity, Affinity data, Affinity score
|Visitor affinity profile|
Numerical measure of how interested a visitor is in the items represented by an affinity. Each affinity has a single affinity score. The score is always a positive integer, such as 17 or 328. The higher the score, the greater the interest.
A visitor's affinity scores are recorded in their affinity profile.
See also: Affinity, Affinity profile
|Visitor affinity score|
Annotations are dated notes associated with a site and shown in timeline-based statistics views. You can add an annotation to a specific calendar date to easily detect whether there has been a change in your site statistics during or after that date.
For example, you can create an annotation for a day you launch a new feature on your site. Later, you can easily view how the launch has affected the traffic, visitor retention, conversions for your site, or the performance of a specific modification.
In computer science, approximate string matching is a technique for finding strings that match a pattern (another string) approximately rather than exactly. The closeness of the match between a string and the pattern is called the edit distance. The shorter the distance, the closer the match.
Frosmo Search uses approximate string matching to handle typographical errors in search terms, which allows for typo-tolerant searches. For example, if a visitor searches for "cot" (a typo), approximate string matching allows the search to also return results for "coat" (an approximate match to "cot" with an edit distance of 1).
See also: Frosmo Search
Fuzzy string searching
|Average conversions per unique user||ACPUU|
Average number of conversions completed during a specified period of time by all unique visitors on your site.
See also: Unique visitor
|Average conversions per paying user||ACPPU||Average number of conversions completed during a specified period of time by visitors that complete a conversion on your site.|
Average order value is, as the name suggests, the total revenue from orders divided by the number of orders. It is an important metric for online businesses to understand their customers' buying habits in order to optimize them.
At Frosmo, average order value is commonly used for measuring the impact of product recommendations, such as the upsell or cross-sell they generate.
|Average revenue per paying user||ARPPU||Average revenue brought by converted visitors during a specified period of time.|
|Average revenue per unique user||ARPUU|
Average revenue brought by all unique visitors on your site during a specified period of time.
See also: Unique visitor
Back-end (or server-side) systems consist of databases, data processing components, and other server infrastructures that handle operations not directly visible to website visitors. An important function of the back-end system is to launch programs and operations in response to front-end system requests.
See also: Front end
Application that allows you (visitor) to view and interact with web pages on the World Wide Web (WWW) or a local website.
No matter what device you use, be it a personal computer or a mobile device, if you're on a website, you're using a browser or at the very least an application with a browser engine.
Browsers are client applications (also known as user agents) of web servers.
See also: Visitor, Web server
Browser's private cache that stores web page resources locally to speed up page loading times for subsequent visits to the same page. Storing resources in a cache is called caching.
Browser caching works as follows:
In technical terms, what the browser actually stores in its cache are the responses it receives from the web server in reply to its requests. A response may or may not include an attached resource, such as an image file. When the browser needs to make the same request again, such as getting an image it already fetched during a previous page load, the browser reuses the cached response (including any attached resources) instead of making a new request to the server.
Browser caching is a part of HTTP caching.
|CTA||In web design and online marketing, a call to action is a visual element, such as a banner, button, or link, prompting the visitor to take some action (normally by clicking the element). The purpose of inviting a response from the visitor is to create leads and attract the visitor to enter the conversion funnel.|
Any visitor action whereby a visitor updates their shopping cart, such as by adding an item to the cart.
The Frosmo Platform tracks cart actions as cart action events. Each event contains cart action data that describes the specifics of the action that triggered the event.
See also: Cart action tracking
|Cart action event|
Automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions that qualify as cart actions and sending the data about those actions (cart action data) to the Frosmo back end.
The Frosmo Platform uses cart actions to track visitor affinity.
See also: Affinity, Cart action
Use case of a modification, which you select when you create the modification. The case primarily determines the number of variations the modification can have and, if the modification has multiple variations, how the variation distribution is defined.
You can select from the following cases:
See also: A/B test, Modification, Multi-armed bandit, Personalization, Variation distribution
In the Frosmo context, a basic modification event.
A modification gets a click when a visitor clicks a part of the modification for which the Frosmo Platform tracks clicks, such as a button, link, or any element with the class
The platform tracks clicks also for recommended items.
See also: Modification, Recommended item
Ratio of clicks to displays or true displays that the modification gets. The Frosmo Platform tracks CTR separately for displays and true displays.
See also: Click, Display, True display
Piece of computer hardware or software that uses a service provided by a server in a client-server system.
For example, a web browser is a client to a web server.
In the Frosmo Platform, a company typically represents a customer or partner account.
A company can have one or more sites. The settings of company affect all sites of that company. In the Frosmo Control Panel, a user who has access to a company automatically has access to all sites of the company.
Frosmo Control Panel user with the "User" role. Company users are employees of Frosmo's customers, as opposed to Frosmo users, who are Frosmo employees.
See also: Frosmo user
The comparison group consists of visitors who see the original content of a web page instead of modifications. The platform automatically places a certain percentage of all visitors in the comparison group. An individual visitor always either belongs or does not belong in the comparison group.
For visitors in the comparison group to see the original content instead of a modification, the modification must have an active comparison group variation. If active, visitors in the comparison group do not see the modification, while visitors not in the comparison group see the modification normally. If the comparison group variation is inactive, all visitors see the modification, including those in the comparison group. Once a visitor enters the comparison group, that visitor will not see any modifications on the site that have an active comparison group variation.
By default, a new site has a comparison group size of 50% for performance trial purposes: one half of visitors sees modifications, while the other half (comparison group) sees the original site content. Following the trial period, Frosmo sets the comparison group size to a smaller percentage, typically 10%.
See also: Modification, Variation
Content preloading enables loading modification content in the browser as a part of the custom script, which decreases the delay in displaying the modification, reducing flickering.
Content preloading has some limitations, however:
You can enable content preloading in the advanced modification settings.
See also: Flickering
In the Frosmo Platform, a context refers to visitor-specific data stored in the browser's local storage, including:
See also: Local storage, Origin, Shared context
Action you want your visitors to take, such as purchasing a product, launching a game, signing up for a newsletter, or watching a video. You can define a conversion to be basically any variable in visitor behavior that you want to measure. What exactly you want to define as a conversion depends on your business goals.
See also: Transaction
Conversion attribution is the process by which the Frosmo Platform:
Conversion attribution is a prerequisite for generating conversion-based performance statistics for content.
By default, the Frosmo Platform automatically attributes conversions to the following content:
See also: Conversion, Modification, Recommendation
Conversion information collected from a site through conversion tracking. In the Frosmo Platform, the data for a conversion includes an ID, type, monetary or other value, and description.
See also: Data layer
A conversion definition describes a single conversion to be tracked on a site. Conversion definitions are an alternative to data layer events for setting up conversion tracking for a site.
Conversion definitions are based on triggers, which allow you to detect a particular event, such as a click, on a web page and take a predefined action based on that event. The trigger for a conversion definition, therefore, represents the visitor action (event) that you want to track as a conversion on the site.
You create and manage conversion definitions in the Frosmo Control Panel.
See also: Conversion, Conversion tracking
Percentage of all visitors that actually make a conversion. The conversion rate is calculate using the following formula:
(conversions / unique visitors) x 100
The conversion rate is constantly fluctuating due to seasonal changes, marketing campaigns, and sales.
|CRO||Approach for improving the performance of a website by increasing the proportion of visitors that complete a conversion. Optimization is based on systematically testing different versions of content or process.||Conversion optimization|
Process of counting conversions on a site to measure how successfully the site is meeting its business goals. Conversion tracking is a prerequisite for conversion rate optimization.
In the Frosmo Platform, and in a more technical sense, conversion tracking is the automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions that qualify as conversions and sending the data about those actions (conversion data) to the Frosmo back end. Conversion tracking also involves counting conversions and attributing them to modifications, which the platform does automatically when it receives conversion data from a site.
See also: Conversion, Conversion definition, Data layer, Transaction tracking
Every conversion has a type. The type describes the category or kind of conversion that took place.
The Frosmo Platform has a single reserved conversion type, "transaction", which the platform automatically applies to transactions as part of transaction tracking. You can freely define the type of non-transaction conversions in conversion tracking.
See also: Conversion, Conversion definition, Conversion tracking, Transaction, Transaction tracking
You can set the conversion value as a part of a conversion definition for your site. Normally, the conversion value is the monetary value of the conversion, but you can define it to be any numerical value or leave it undefined. When a visitor completes the conversion, the given value is assigned to it.
If the conversion value is 0 or undefined, the number of conversions is shown in the conversion statistics, but the value of the conversions cannot be calculated.
See also: Conversion definition
|Small piece of data sent from a website and stored in the visitor's browser while the visitor is browsing. Cookies are used, for example, to remember temporary information (such as the contents of a visitor's shopping cart) or to track the visitor's browsing behavior.|
Any visitor action or state that you want to track and interact with on a website, and that is not a basic modification event, conversion, transaction, or product view. You can also use custom actions to find out where visitors are geographically located. The purpose of custom actions is to track what visitors are doing on a site or where they are located, and to use this information to dynamically modify their user experience in some way, for example, by showing specific content based on the page they are viewing or the city they are in.
See also: Custom action tracking
Custom action tracking is the automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions and state changes that qualify as custom actions, and sending the data about those actions and state changes (custom action data) to the Frosmo back end.
Custom action tracking allows you to dynamically react to visitor behavior that is not tracked by conversions, transactions, or product views. You can use custom actions to, for example, show variable content based on the page a visitor is viewing or the city they are in.
See also: Custom action
Custom events allow you to track modifications beyond clicks, displays, and true displays, which the platform handles automatically. A custom event can be about anything that you can do with or change in a modification.
Custom events are a part of the advanced tracking feature of the Frosmo Platform.
See also: Advanced tracking
External application you can develop and then add to the Frosmo Control Panel as a new page.
For example, instead of adding product data to a spreadsheet, you can create a form to enter the data directly in the FCP. Or, if your company has multiple sites and you need to regularly synchronize content or configurations between the sites, you can create an application for handling these tasks in the FCP.
In the Frosmo context, custom renderer is a site-specific function to change the default placement functionality or to add new functionality. Custom renderers can be used, for example, to show a modification only when the visitor scrolls the page, or to implement a specific type of click tracking.
The Frosmo custom script contains the configurations and code specific to a single site. These are used to modify the content and functionality of the site. The configurations include, for example, modifications whose content is preloaded, placements, segments, and triggers. The custom script runs on top of Frosmo Core and is unique to each site (or group of sites managed as a single site). Changes made to a site in the Frosmo Control Panel are automatically reflected in the custom script for that site.
|Frosmo custom script|
Automatic process of monitoring visitors on a website for specific actions and collecting data about those actions. The actions represent behavior relevant to the site's business, such as viewing a product or completing a purchase. The platform uses the data for various operational purposes, namely for running features that rely on the data and generating performance statistics from the data.
See also: Visitor
|The platform randomly places every new visitor in one of ten deciles. The visitor stays in the same decile until they clear their browser cache. The deciles are built-in visitor segments to which you can target modifications. By default, modifications display to all ten deciles, but you can set individual modifications to target only selected deciles. The visitor's decile placement applies across all modifications on a site.|
In the Frosmo context, a basic modification event.
A modification gets a display when Frosmo Core has rendered the modification to the page. The display event does not require that the modification has been in the browser viewport and therefore visible to the visitor.
The platform tracks displays also for recommended items.
See also: Frosmo Core library, Modification, Recommended item, True display
Number of seconds after which the modification is displayed once the Frosmo script has been loaded. The delay timer starts when the modification placement is verified and the modification is ready to be displayed.
You can define the display delay in the advanced modification settings.
Display interval determines how often the same modification can be shown to visitors. You can set the interval to seconds, minutes, hours, or days in the advanced modification settings.
For example, you can define that a visitor cannot see a specific modification more often than once in three hours.
In modification placements, the display method determines how the modification is placed in relation to the target element in the page code. For example, you define the modification content to replace the original content or appear before or after it.
You can define the display delay in the advanced modification settings.
See also: Placement
Document has different meanings in different contexts.
For a search engine, a document can be:
See also: Search engine
Every web page is an HTML document.
See also: Document Object Model
In web technology, the Document Object Model (DOM) refers to an application programming interface (API) providing a structure for the contents of an HTML, XHTML, or XML file. The DOM allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure, and style of the files.
In the Frosmo context, domain refers to an identification string used to identify internet resources, such as computers, networks, and services.
In a URL, domain (or domain name) is the part following the network protocol. For example, in the URL
|Estimated conversions||You can view the estimated number of conversions for a segment in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The estimate is based on the average segment size and number of conversions during the time range you have selected for viewing. The Frosmo Platform assumes that the development in the segment size and conversion number will continue in a similar manner for the next equivalent time range; it does not take into account any seasonal changes or other anomalies.|
|Estimated revenue||You can view the estimated revenue for a segment in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The estimate is based on the average segment size and revenue per visitor during the time range you have selected for viewing. The Frosmo Platform assumes that the development in the segment size and revenue will continue in a similar manner for the next equivalent time range; it does not take into account any seasonal changes or other anomalies.|
|Exposure of a modification means the percentage of visitors on a website to whom the modification has been displayed during the last month.|
Type of search filter that allows users to quickly narrow down search results based on a single dimension, or facet, of an item, such as brand or type.
For example, when searching for shoes on a retail site, a visitor might see brand-based facets for "Converse", "Nike", and "Sketchers". Selecting one or more of these facets would immediately limit the search results only to shoes belonging to the selected brands.
The term faceting means:
See also: Frosmo Search
Search solution that uses facets to refine search results. You can apply multiple facets simultaneously to quickly narrow down your search results.
See also: Facet, Frosmo Search
|Flickering means that the original content of a web page appears for a short while (up to one second) before a content modification is loaded and displayed. Flickering may distract and confuse a visitor. The easiest way to prevent it is to place the Frosmo scripts in the |
Point at which web page content disappears below the bottom edge of the browser window. The fold typically refers to the demarcation point immediately after page load. In other words, the fold is the bottom of the browser viewport before any scrolling occurs.
"Above the fold" refers to the portion of the web page visible without scrolling down. This is the prime real estate of a web page.
"Below the fold" refers to the portion of the web page that becomes visible only when the visitor scrolls down.
Since screen resolutions, window sizes, and display settings vary between browsers, devices, and users, so does the precise location of the fold. There is no standard height for the area above the fold.
See also: Viewport
See also: Back end
Main user interface of the Frosmo Platform. You use the Control Panel to customize your websites and monitor their performance.
The Frosmo Core library implements the core front-end functionality and services of the Frosmo Platform. The library manages modifications and segmentation, collects usage data, and fetches modification content from the back end. The library is the same for all customers and sites.
Set of components in the Frosmo back end that provides a single, consistent means of sending data to and retrieving data from the back end, and for processing and storing that data.
The Data Pipeline is used, for example, in advanced tracking and when generating recommendations.
Unique identifier that the Frosmo Platform automatically assigns to each new visitor that enters a site. The ID allows the platform to identify individual visitors for the purpose of tracking their interactions on the site and retrieving data specific to them from the Frosmo back end.
There are two types of Frosmo IDs:
See also: Visitor
Frosmo presence in the front end. The library runs on top of a customer site in the visitor's browser, integrating the site with the Frosmo Platform. The library provides both the framework for the platform to operate on the site and Frosmo's custom solutions for improving the site. The library is platform-independent and can be used together with existing web application frameworks, such as Angular and React.
See also: Custom script, Frosmo Core library, Frosmo Platform
The Frosmo Platform is a web UI development solution for improving website functionality and personalizing online user experiences. The platform also provides public APIs and other tools for personalization and content development across different online channels and devices.
The platform consists of the following main components:
Regional instance of the Frosmo Platform software. The platform is hosted on multiple regional servers for improved availability. While the servers all run the same platform software, each instance services its own set of customer websites based on geographic proximity.
The URLs of the Frosmo Control Panel, API endpoints, and other platform components are instance-specific.
The current main production instances are:
Frosmo Platform region
|Tool for displaying a modification based on the selected placement. You can use the preview tool to see how the modification looks and behaves before activating it, debugging the modification, and viewing and configuring site settings for the preview.|
Search engine and a suite of search tools for sites that run the Frosmo Platform. Frosmo Search allows you to set up a site search from scratch or replace your existing site search solution.
See also: Frosmo Platform
An FCP user who is a Frosmo employee.
See also: Company user
|Sales or purchase funnel refers to the decision-making process of a consumer leading to a purchase. In eCommerce, conversion funnel refers to a visitor's journey from becoming aware of a product or service to making a purchase or otherwise completing a conversion. The journey typically consists of a series of discrete steps, from seeing an advertisement or a search result, to navigating the eCommerce site, and finally completing a conversion. Visitor retention within the funnel can be improved through conversion optimization.|
|Geo module||The Frosmo Geo API module allows you to determine geographic areas and distances that you can then use to target visitors based on their location. You can only use the Geo module to target desktop visitors (not mobile visitors). You can enable the Geo module for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel company settings.|
Ready-made search box UI element for sites. The search box allows visitors to use Frosmo Search on a site. The search box delivers an instant, search-as-you-type experience complemented by personalized recommendations and category suggestions.
See also: Frosmo Search
Anything that a site sells or offers to visitors, or that the site otherwise tracks for conversions or transactions. An item can be, for example, a retail product, a blog article, an online game, a magazine subscription, or a downloadable brochure.
See also: Item attribute, Item data, Product, Product tracking
Single characteristic of an item, such as an ID or a name. The attributes of an item together make up the item data for the item.
An item attribute is always composed of a name and a value, such as
Product tracking determines what attributes the Frosmo Platform collects and stores about items on a site.
See also: Item, Item data, Product attribute, Product tracking
In Frosmo Search, item boosting allows you to make individual items rank higher in search results.
You boost an item by defining a boosting score for it. Frosmo Search applies the boosting score as a tiebreaker when multiple items have the same text match score.
See also: Frosmo Search, Text match score
Item information collected from a site through product tracking. The data for an item typically includes attributes such as ID, name, category, description, image, and price.
Item data is a prerequisite for implementing recommendations and other features that revolve around items, such as segmenting visitors based on the types of items they have viewed.
See also: Item, Item attribute, Product data, Product tracking
File containing the full data for all items available on a site. The file is periodically updated to reflect changes in the item offering. The item data is typically in a JSON or XML format.
An item data feed can be both an alternative and a complement to product tracking performed directly on the site.
See also: Item, Item data, Product data feed, Product tracking
Product data feed
Visitor action whereby a visitor views a list of items. For example, a product category page is an item list since the page presents the visitor with a list of products, and viewing the page therefore counts as an item list view.
The Frosmo Platform tracks item list views as item list view events. Each event contains item list view data that describes the specifics of the view that triggered the event.
See also: Item list view tracking
|Item list view event|
Automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions that qualify as item list views and sending the data about those actions (item list view data) to the Frosmo back end.
The platform uses item list views to track visitor affinity.
See also: Affinity, Item list view
|See Product view.|
|Label||Labels are short text tags that you can attach to modifications to filter modifications more easily. A label can be any word that helps you categorize or identify modifications. You can create labels in the Frosmo Control Panel or through the Graniitti API.|
By definition, a landing page is any web page through which a visitor enters a site, such as the site home page or a campaign page.
However, in online marketing and ecommerce, landing page normally refers to a standalone web page that appears after a visitor clicks a search result or an online ad. The purpose of the page is to encourage the visitor to take a predefined action. The goal of that action can be lead generation (getting the visitor's contact information) or "warming up" the visitor to enter the conversion funnel to make a purchase (for example, presenting product information or a special deal).
A layout shift occurs when visible content loads at different speeds or at different times on a web page, causing the page layout to dynamically change in the browser viewport while the visitor is viewing and possibly interacting with the page.
A layout shift can be intended, such as when a container expands in response to a visitor action.
An unexpected layout shift occurs when some content loads slower than other content, or when content is dynamically added to the page, resulting in the already loaded content unexpectedly changing its position when new content gets added to the page. For example, an asynchronously loaded ad banner at the top of the page might complete loading only after the rest of the page is already rendered, causing the existing content to suddenly move downwards.
|Local cookie total||LCT|
Number of visitors currently segmented.
The local cookie total is calculated daily. The calculation starts after midnight local (server) time for the previous 24-hour period. Some visitors may be segmented and then exit the segment during the same day. Therefore, the total number of visitors for a day may be higher than the local cookie total.
Web applications use local storage to store data in the visitor's browser. All pages from the same origin (protocol and domain) can use and access the same data.
Unlike cookies, local storage does not affect the performance of the website.
See also: Context, Origin, Session storage
|In the Frosmo context, a real-time change to a web page designed to personalize or otherwise improve the user experience of the website and to guide visitors to complete a conversion. You can also use modifications to collect usage data from a site. You can place a modification in basically any web page element, either appending or replacing the element content.|
The multi-armed bandit is a modification case for automatically managing and optimizing variation distribution. Multi-armed bandit modifications continuously adjust their variation distribution based on how well the variations perform over time. This way, the multi-armed bandit automatically shows the best-performing variation most often.
For more information, see Multi-armed bandit optimization.
Negative match is a segment for visitors who do not take a specific action on a website. This is useful when you want to use segmentation to exclude visitors not interested in specific products or services from your target audience.
See also: Segmentation
In the Frosmo context, "origin" has two distinct meanings:
Source of a web resource (web security concept)
The origin of a web resource, such as a web page, script, or image, is defined by the protocol (scheme), domain (host), and port of the URL used to access the resource. For example, in the web page URL
The same-origin policy is a security mechanism that prevents scripts running on a website from accessing the data on pages with a different origin.
Using shared context (a cross-origin local storage) enables data to be shared between multiple origins.
Site name in the Frosmo Platform
When you create a site in the Frosmo Control Panel, you must enter the complete URL of the site. The URL determines the name used to identify the site in the site's custom script and in the Frosmo back end. This name is also known as "origin" or "site origin".
See also: Domain, Shared context, URL
|Time (normally in seconds) it takes to download and display the entire content of a web page in the visitor's browser viewport.|
Type of web page, such as the home page or a category page.
The Frosmo Platform uses an explicit page type setting in:
The page types available for a site depend on the site's vertical.
See also: Placement, Recommendation strategy, Vertical
|The path in a URL reflects the directory or file path on a computer. For example, in the URL |
Perceived performance refers to how fast a visitor thinks your website is regardless of how fast it technically performs.
There are several ways to make your website feel faster, such as adding progress indicators, and using button states and lazy loading.
Making real-time changes to a website based on the attributes and behavior of the visitor. The goal of personalization is to provide a more relevant user experience and, as a result, drive conversion and create revenue. Personalization can also be used to cross-sell or upsell products and create brand loyalty through engagement.
Technically, web personalization is implemented by applying specific changes to the website based on visitor segmentation or other methods of gathering behavioral data and triggering events based on it.
In the Frosmo Control Panel, personalization also refers to a modification case for creating a piece content that you can customize for a specific target audience.
See also: Case
A placement determines where on the web page a modification is placed. In the page code, the modification is always placed in relation to a specific target element. How and where the modification is actually displayed on the page depends on the page layout.
You can create and modify placements through Frosmo Control Panel.
Preview URL is the absolute URL of a page where you can preview modifications assigned to a placement.
The Control Panel uses the preview URL for launching variation previews from the modification UI.
If there are several modifications with the same placement settings, priority determines which of the modifications is displayed first.
You can define the priority for a modification in the advanced modification settings.
Anything that a site sells or offers to visitors, or that the site otherwise tracks for conversions or transactions. A product can be, for example, a retail product, a blog article, an online game, a magazine subscription, or a downloadable brochure.
See also: Item, Product attribute, Product data, Product tracking, Product variant
Single characteristic of a product, such as an ID or a name. The attributes of a product together make up the product data for the product.
A product attribute is always composed of a name and a value, such as
Product tracking determines what attributes the Frosmo Platform collects and stores about products on a site.
See also: Item attribute, Product, Product data, Product tracking
Product information collected from a site through product tracking. The data for a product typically includes attributes such as ID, name, category, description, image, and price.
Product data is a prerequisite for implementing recommendations and other features that revolve around products, such as segmenting visitors based on the types of products they have viewed.
See also: Item data, Product, Product attribute, Product tracking
File containing the full data for all products available on a site. The file is periodically updated to reflect changes in the product offering. The product data is typically in a JSON or XML format.
A product data feed can be both an alternative and a complement to product tracking performed directly on the site.
See also: Item data feed, Product, Product data, Product tracking
Item data feed
|See Item list view.|
Product tracking is the automatic process of collecting product data from a site and counting the number of views different products receive from visitors. Product data and product view statistics are stored in the Frosmo back end.
Product tracking is essential for building a database of products to which transactions and other product conversions can be mapped, and for tracking which products visitors view. Product data and product view statistics are a prerequisite for implementing recommendations and other features that revolve around products, such as segmenting visitors based on the types of products they have viewed.
The Frosmo Platform collects product data either by pulling the data directly from product pages as they load in a visitor's browser or by reading the data from a product data feed. On a product page, the standard means of providing the product data is by triggering product view events through the data layer.
See also: Product, Product data, Product view, Data layer
Product variants are versions of the same product that differ with regard to one or more attributes, such as color and size. For example, a smartphone model might have variants for different color and storage capacity combinations, while a shirt might have variants based on color and size.
In the Frosmo Platform, a product variant is always associated with a parent product, and a product variant can never be a parent product itself. For recommendation generation purposes, the platform calculates product variant statistics (views, conversions, transactions) for the parent product.
See also: Product, Product data
In a general sense, a product view is a visitor action whereby the visitor views product or other item information on a site, typically on a product or similar page.
In a technical sense, a product view is an event that gets triggered whenever a visitor navigates to a product or other item page, or otherwise views an item on a site. Product view events accumulate product data and product view statistics for the site. Product view events are part of product tracking.
See also: Item, Product, Product tracking
Part of the URL of a web page that contains search parameters for searching a dynamic website. A query string starts with the "?" character, and consists of a key and value separated by the "=" character. For example, in the URL
If there are several query parameters in a query string appended to a URL, they are separated with the "&" character.
In the Frosmo context, you can use query strings when creating segments and triggers.
In the Frosmo Platform, a recommendation is a piece of dynamically generated content predicted to appeal to visitors and delivered through a modification. The platform generates recommendations by feeding usage data to one or more algorithms that produce relevant results from that data. The platform subsystem that controls recommendation generation is called Frosmo Recommendations.
Product recommendations, that is, recommendations generated from product and transaction data are a common category of recommendations. Examples of product recommendations include most viewed products and products purchased together.
In the documentation, "recommendation" can refer either to a set of recommended items displayed in a single web page element, such as the top 10 most viewed products displayed in a product slider, or to the modification that displays the recommendation on the site.
See also: Recommendation data, Recommended item, Usage data
Logic and settings for generating the raw data of a recommendation.
Recommendation configurations are a legacy solution replaced by recommendation strategies.
See also: Recommendation, Recommendation data, Recommendation strategy
Raw data content of a recommendation, that is, the recommendation results. The data consists of the details of one or more recommended items. By default, the items are in descending order of rank, with the most recommended item (as defined by the algorithm) ranked highest.
For example, for a product recommendation, the data consists of one or more product items, with each item containing the details of a single recommended product. The product details include information such as ID, name, type, image, and price. The highest-ranked product is returned first, the second-highest is returned second, and so on.
The Frosmo Recommendations system generates recommendation data based on recommendation strategies (standard solution) and recommendation configurations (legacy solution). The system automatically regenerates the data at regular time intervals. The exact regeneration frequency depends on the strategy or configuration settings.
Recommendation data serves as the basis for building the visible recommendation web element on the page.
See also: Recommendation, Recommendation configuration, Recommendation strategy, Recommended item
Logic and settings for generating the raw data of a recommendation.
Recommendation strategies are the standard solution for generating recommendations.
See also: Recommendation, Recommendation data
Item included in a recommendation, such as a recommended game or product.
See also: Item, Recommendation, Recommendation data
|Visit referrer is the web page from which a visitor comes to your site. For example, if the visitor searches Google with the query "example" and accesses your website |
|Region||See Frosmo Platform instance.|
String of characters defining a search pattern. Regexes are generally used in string processing in search engines and database queries. The regex syntax varies depending on the programming language being used.
In the Frosmo context, you can use regexes in segmentation when creating or editing segmentation rules with options that support regular expressions (URL, protocol, domain, path, and anchor). You can also use regexes when defining URL rules for placements and triggers.
Message sent by a client to a server requesting some action or resource. In reply, the server sends a response back to the client.
An HTTP request is a resource request sent by a web browser or other web client to a web server. In reply, the server sends an HTTP response back to the client.
See also: Browser, Client, Response, Server, Web Server
Message sent by a server to a client in reply to a request from the client. The message contains status information about whether the request succeeded. If the request asked for a resource, the response also contains the appropriate resource data.
An HTTP response is a resource response sent by a web server to a web browser or other web client in reply to an HTTP request from the client. The response contains the requested resource, if available.
|On a web page, a modification is always placed in relation to a specific target element. A placement determines that target element, that is, where on the web page the modification is shown. You can create and modify placements through the Frosmo Control Panel.||Returning visitor|
Main site search user interface on a website. The search box is typically a single-line text field and placed in the top right corner of the website.
Instant Search is the search box solution for Frosmo Search.
See also: Frosmo Search, Instant Search
Software system that allows users to search for information from a collection of documents or other data, such as a database, file system, or website.
A search engine typically consists of the following main components:
See also: Document, Frosmo Search, Web search engine
In a colloquial sense, a search term.
In a technical sense:
See also: Search term, Search engine
Single word or phrase that a user enters into a search engine to find information.
See also: Search query
Group of visitors who share the same interests, location, website behavior, or other characteristics. Segments are used to target visitors with content that matches their needs, making the purchase funnel faster and the overall visitor experience more pleasant.
See also: Segment group, Segmentation
You can use segment groups to:
Segment groups are site-specific.
See also: Segment, Segmentation
Grouping website visitors based on their behavior, location, or other variables to enable effective adaptive content. You can define a set of rules that place a visitor into one or more segments – or remove a visitor from them. Segments are used to target specific types of visitors with content that meets their interests. Content variations displayed to a visitor depend on the segment that the visitor is in.
See also: Segment, Segment group
Selective profiling is a feature that allows the Frosmo Platform to display modifications to visitors based on their profiling choice: Visitors who opt in see personalized, targeted modifications, while visitors who opt out only see non-personalized, non-targeted modifications.
See also: Modification
In the Frosmo context, a selector is used to specify a target element in which to place a modification. Selectors use CSS or jQuery syntax.
You can select or create the target elements in placement settings in the Frosmo Control Panel. To use jQuery selectors, your site must have jQuery enabled.
For CSS, the valid selectors depend on the browser versions you want your site to support, and for jQuery, on the jQuery version used on your site.
See also: Target element
Piece of computer hardware or software that provides services to computer devices or programs in a client-server system.
For example, a web server is a server to web browsers.
Single continuous period of time during which a visitor uses a single website.
In technical terms, the session is a series of contiguous HTTP requests triggered by the visitor in their browser as they interact with the site within a given time frame. If the visitor stops using the site – that is, the browser stops sending requests – for a sufficiently long period of time, the session expires. When the visitor next returns to the site, they start a new session.
In the Frosmo Platform, a session expires after 30 minutes of inactivity.
See also: Visitor
Session source is the web page from which the visitor arrives to your site. It can also be direct traffic, which means that the visitor didn't come from another website but, for example, through a bookmark or by typing the URL directly in their browser.
You can define the session source(s) for a modification in the advanced modification settings to determine the visitors to whom the modification is displayed. You can view the session sources for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel statistics. The session source is defined on domain level. You can only define the session source for basic modifications.
See also: Visit referrer
Session storage is used to store data in the visitor's browser for the active tab and the duration of the current browser session. When the visitor closes the active browser tab or window, the data is removed.
See also: Local storage, Session
Shared context is a cross-origin local storage implemented using an inline frame (iframe). It allows storing visitor data across protocols and domains without having to send it to the back end, which in turn allows the data to be stored only once and the visitor to be treated as a single user within the service.
A common example of the shared context is a site that uses both HTTP and HTTPS to deliver a service. This requires data to be shared between two origins. Using a shared context allows the origins to be treated as one and the same.
You can enable shared context for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel site settings when you create a new site.
See also: Origin
|Multiple domain support|
In the Frosmo Platform, a site represents an actual website of a company. Each site has its own custom script that contains the Frosmo-specific configurations and custom code for the website. Each site also has its own dedicated set of data and statistics tracked by the Frosmo Platform on the website.
A site typically corresponds to a single domain or subdomain, such as
By default, the Frosmo Platform does not enforce the same-origin policy (which only allows scripts that have the same origin as a site to access data on that site).
You can enable Sizzle for your site in the Frosmo Control Panel company settings.
Smart Discovery is both the name of a Frosmo Platform feature and the term for a web page element that implements the feature on a site.
Smart Discovery is a visual search solution that dynamically recommends visitors what to search. Based on a visitor's affinities, their current location on the site, and what's currently popular on the site, Smart Discovery shows the visitor a personalized selection of recommended searches, or Smart Discovery suggestions.
Smart Discovery is built on Frosmo Search.
Web page element
A Smart Discovery is a web page element that displays Smart Discovery suggestions to visitors. A Smart Discovery is specific to page type and optionally category. A Smart Discovery is implemented as a modification.
See also: Frosmo Search, Modification, Page type, Smart Discovery suggestion
Raw data content of a Smart Discovery. The data consists of the details of one or more Smart Discovery suggestions. For each suggestion, the details include information such as display label and search query URL. The suggestions are in descending order of rank, with the most relevant suggestion ranked highest.
Smart Discovery data serves as the basis for building the visible Smart Discovery web element on the page.
See also: Smart Discovery, Smart Discovery suggestion
Recommended search displayed as a clickable element in a Smart Discovery.
Technically, a Smart Discovery suggestion is a search query for a specific group of relevant items, such as "Blue Skirts" or "Nike Sneakers", and generated for a specific Smart Discovery. The Frosmo Platform generates Smart Discovery suggestions based on a site-specific item attribute combination, such as
For example, if a site uses the attribute combination
See also: Item, Item attribute, Search query, Smart Discovery
Custom action with a specific value that controls whether a modification is displayed to visitors. If you set a custom action value as a state for a modification, the modification is only displayed to visitors who complete that custom action with that value. For example, you can set a modification to be displayed only to logged-in visitors by tracking login status with a basic custom action and setting the custom action's logged-in value as a state for the modification.
You select states for a modification in the advanced modification settings.
See also: Custom action, Modification
While this feature is officially known as "Super-Affinity", the documentation talks about "affinity" for simplicity.
See also: Affinity
A modification is always placed on a web page in relation to a specific target element. The target element can be basically any HTML element or CSS selector. If your site has jQuery enabled, you can also use jQuery selectors.
See also: Selector
A template allows you to define web content once and then reuse that content across multiple modifications on your site.
When you create a template, you define two key components that together specify how the template works:
Test mode allows you to show modifications only to certain visitors for testing purposes. To use test mode, you must enable it for modifications in the Frosmo Control Panel and then activate test mode in the browser.
See also: Workspace
In Frosmo Search, the text match score measures how closely an item (specifically, its textual information) matches the search term in a search query. The higher the score, the closer the match, and the more relevant the item.
See also: Frosmo Search, Item, Search term
In search engines, tiebreaking is the process of sorting search results that have the exact same ranking score.
Frosmo Search uses tiebreaking attributes and item boosting scores to break ties between items with the same text match score.
See also: Frosmo Search, Search engine, Text match score
|Search result tiebreaking|
Single word used by a search engine to find matches between search terms and documents.
In executing a search, the search engine splits the search term into tokens and checks those tokens against ones the engine has already indexed from documents. For example, the search term "best personalization solution" contains three tokens: "best", "personalization", and "solution".
The process of splitting text into tokens is called tokenization.
See also: Document, Search engine, Search term
|A tracking variation is used to track the original content of a web page or site to compare it against other modification variations. You can use tracking variations instead of the comparison group when you want to show the original content to a larger number of visitors than the comparison group includes.|
Simultaneous purchase of one or more items, such as products. The Frosmo Platform registers each transaction, irrespective of the number of items purchased, as a single conversion.
See also: Conversion, Item, Product
Product purchase information collected from a site through transaction tracking. In the Frosmo Platform, the data for a transaction includes a list of purchased products and optionally a transaction ID and the total purchase value of the transaction. You can use transaction data to, for example, create product recommendations.
See also: Data layer
Transaction tracking is the automatic process of monitoring visitors for actions that qualify as transactions and sending the data about those actions (transaction data) to the Frosmo back end. Transaction tracking also involves counting transactions as conversions and attributing those conversions to modifications, which the Frosmo Platform does automatically when it receives transaction data from a site.
Transaction tracking allows you to monitor the revenue generated by your site and measure Frosmo's impact on that revenue. Transaction tracking is also a prerequisite for implementing features that rely on transaction data, such as generating recommendations and segmenting visitors based on the items they have purchased, which in turn feed into revenue generation.
See also: Transaction, Conversion, Conversion tracking, Data layer
A trigger allows you to detect a particular event, such as a click, on a web page and take a predefined action based on that event.
You can use triggers in:
A trigger consists of two parts: the evaluation point (the event on the web page that causes the Frosmo Platform to check whether to fire the trigger) and the rule(s) for firing the trigger. You don't have to define any rules if you want the trigger to be fired every time an event takes place.
For example, you can configure a trigger to be fired when the Frosmo script is loaded (= evaluation point) if the current page URL is
In the Frosmo context, a basic modification event.
A modification gets a true display when the modification has remained visible and stationary in the browser viewport for at least 3 seconds. In addition, if the modification's width and height are both less than or equal to 300 pixels, the modification must have been fully in the viewport. If the modification's width or height is greater than 300 pixels, at least 75% of the modification must have been in the viewport.
The platform tracks true displays also for recommended items.
See also: Display, Modification, Recommended item, Viewport
Analytics concept where a given visitor is counted only once for a given statistics even if the visitor has multiple interactions.
For example, the Daily unique visitors statistic for a modification variation counts the total number of visitors for whom the variation loaded and rendered at least once on a given day. If the variation loaded and rendered multiple times for the same visitor, the platform only counts the first time.
See also: Visitor
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a reference specifying the location of a web resource and means to access that resource.
The URL of a web page contains several parts, the most important being protocol and domain.
See also: Domain, Path, Query string
|URL matchers are used in the Frosmo Control Panel when working with placements and triggers. For placements, you use URL matchers to determine the URL of the page on which a modification is displayed. For triggers, you use URL matchers to determine the conditions for firing the trigger.|
Data that the Frosmo Platform collects or tracks on a site for analytics and personalization purposes. The data drives much of what the platform does, such as generate recommendations and segment visitors.
Usage data consists of:
By default, the platform collects and processes only anonymous and pseudonymous information about visitors and their behavior on a website. The platform does not collect data that in itself enables the identification of an individual data subject.
See also: Conversion data, Product data, Transaction data
|Person using the Frosmo Control Panel or other Frosmo applications or services, such as Frosmo Preview.|
Variations are different content versions of the same modification.
If a modification has only one variation, all visitors get that variation. If a modification has multiple variations, you can define how the variations are distributed among visitors, that is, what percentage of visitors gets which variation.
The number of variations you can create for a modification depends on the selected modification case:
Apart from multi-armed bandit modifications, a visitor is assigned a specific variation until they clear their browser cache, open a new window in incognito mode, or visit the site from another device.
See also: Case
Variation distribution determines the percentage of eligible visitors to whom a specific modification variation is actually shown.
How the variation distribution is defined depends on the selected modification case:
If the modification has an active comparison group variation, a certain percentage of all visitors entering the website will not see the modification.
See also: Case
In a web browser, the viewport is the part of the browser UI that displays the web page (web document). The viewport, or browser viewport, therefore generally refers to the portion of the web page currently visible in the browser.
See also: Fold
Business focus of a site, such as iGaming or retail.
The vertical is also a site setting in the Frosmo Platform that affects certain features, such as placements and recommendation strategies, available to the site. You set the vertical in the Frosmo Control Panel.
Visit referrer is the page from which a visitor has arrived from your site. You can segment your visitors based on the referrer of their visit on URL, protocol, domain, or path level. Visitors segmented based on the visit referrer stay in the segment for a predefined period of time (1-365 days).
See also: Session source
User of a website.
You can generally think of a visitor as a unique person browsing and interacting with a site on a single computer, smartphone, or other device.
Technically, the Frosmo Platform does not actually see the person, but the web browser they're using to access the site. A visitor, therefore, is really a browser, and visitor behavior comprises the events and requests that the visitor's actions trigger in the browser and that result in the browser communicating with a web server.
The platform automatically assigns a unique identifier, a Frosmo ID, to each new visitor (browser) that enters a site.
See also: Browser, Frosmo ID, Unique visitor
|Visitor affinity||See Affinity.|
Search engine for websites. A web search engine can operate inside a single website to implement site search, such as Frosmo Search, or it can operate across the web, such as Google Search.
See also: Frosmo Search, Search engine
Server computer hosting one or more websites. A web server (1) stores all web pages and other web resources that make up a website and (2) delivers those resources to client applications, such as browsers, on request.
When a visitor navigates to a web page, the visitor's browser requests the page from the web server over HTTP. The web server responds by sending the page content to the browser over the same HTTP connection, after which the browser can display the page to the visitor.
If there are several modifications with the same placement settings and priority, weight determines which of the modifications is displayed most often.
For example, if modification A has a weight of 1 and modification B a weight of 3, modification A is shown 1 / (1 + 3) = 25% of the time and modification B 3 / (1 + 3) = 75% of the time.
You can define the weight of a modification in the advanced modification settings.
Frosmo Platform feature that allows you to develop and test site features in the Frosmo Control Panel without affecting the live content of your site. You can either duplicate existing features or create new ones in a workspace, and, when you so choose, publish the features to production.
See also: Test mode