To speed up your web experience, browsers store copies of the websites you visit. When you visit the same site again in your browser, the pages load faster than they did on your first visit. This is because the browser can now fetch the page content from the browser's local cache on your computer, as opposed to downloading it over the internet from a web server.
Caching also means that changes to pages you've already visited may not show up in the browser immediately. Often, a simple page reload fixes this. Sometimes, though, this is not enough, and you need to force the browser to re-download the current page, ignoring the cached content. This is called a hard reload (also hard refresh, cache refresh, or cache bypass).
As a general rule, to hard-reload a page in any desktop browser:
If the above shortcuts do not work, check for additional options in try hard-reloading through the browser's developer tools. For example, to hard-reload a page using developer tools on Google Chrome:
For additional options, check the official browser documentation, where available: